How to Check Normality of 0.1N NaOH | Molor weight | Formula

Today we also discuss How to Check Normality of 0.1N NaOH?

The formula  is the weight of the substance in grams

The = Normality x Equivalent weight of the substance x given volume in liter

W= 0.1 x 40x 1

= 4.00gm (NaOH is to be dissolved in one liter of distilled water)

How to Check Normality of 0.1N NaOH

  • The equivalent weight of NaOH is 40.00gms

sum of atomic weight of Na (23gm) + oxygen(16gm) + Hydrogen (1.00gm)


Element                            Atomic mass                                Atoms


Sodium                                          22.989770                                          1

Hydrogen                                    1.00794                                               1

Oxygen                                         15.9994                                                1


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Study Pesticide

Lemon diseases identification | Citrus diseases treatment

If you are lucky enough to be able to grow your own lemon tree but you can face many problems like soil problem, pest problem or diseases problem. So we actually discuss this article how to lemon diseases identification.

Lemon diseases identification | Citrus diseases control

Lemon Canker

Lemon canker treatment

Citrus canker is the Bacterial disease. This disease affects all the above-ground parts like twigs, leaves, thorns, older, branches, petioles and fruit. At first, leaves become small, round water soaked and yellowish spots on the leaves. This damage created by larvae that feed by creating shallow mines. The injury on the fruit is only on the skin and there is no effect on the pulp or juice. These fruits get less than market value.


i) Grow canker-resistant varieties.

ii) Prune the affected twigs before the monsoon.

iii) Spraying of neem cake solution @ 50gm/litre of water during the rainy season at 15 days interval.

iv) Spray 125gm Streptocycline + 62gm Copper sulphate in 1250 litres of water.

Citrus Scab

Lemon scab treatment

Citrus scab caused by the fungus Elsinoe Fawcett. The scab is caused by a fungus attacks the surfaces of the fruit and leaves. These symptoms occur on the leaves, twigs, and fruits. The scab pustules are a mixture of fungal and host tissue. These diseases come from fruit will not develop normally and the tree will undergo early leaf drop. The infected fruits become hard and often drop prematurely.


i) Removed the infected leaves and fruits.

ii) Spray Ziram 27SC @25% or Copper Oxychloride @ 0.35 or Dithane M-45 @0.25%

Damping of Seedlings (Lemon diseases identification)

Damping of the seedling is the very common trouble in the lemon crops. The main fungus attacks the seedlings at or near the surface of the taproot. The fungus lives in the soil and them primarily a problem in seedbeds.


i) Collected diseases free plant.

ii) Spray neem cake solution @50g/litre of water.

iii) Drenching of soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture is very effective.

Ring Sport

This virus appears as yellow rings on mature leaves. This ring varies one to leaf with variable diameter. The affected trees suffer significant loss of fruit yield and later decline with dieback symptoms. The virus is transmitted through the infected bud wood.


i) Use resident variety.

ii) Use virus free tree.

Gummosis (Lemon diseases identification)

This is also known as Phytophthora gummosis. The main symptom as water soaked large patches on the basal portions of the stem in the ground level. The symptom can be seen in fruit. These patches turn brown and the bark may split through which a gum stem, near the ground level. Dark water-soaked areas are formed in the bark and a sour smell may emanate from them in wet condition. At the last stage the dead bark dries, shrinks and cracks and patches may fall off leaving an open canker.


i) Decorticate and disinfect wounds on trunk either with.

ii) Disinfectant solution and cover the wound with.

iii) Apply Bordeaux mixture 1%

iv) Always keep the orchard clean. Prune unproductive dry and disease/ insect infected branches.

We also discuss how to growing a lemon tree indoor plant.

Types of Agriculture in world |types Agriculture World | Crop name

Agriculture is the collective term to describe the activities and processes that are involved in farming Basically. Agriculture is the most important human economic activity. For the best use of geological such as food, fuel etc, human employment, agriculture, land and water. Let us have a look at types Agriculture world.

The field of Agriculture production, where a person works for the interests of many other than himself.

Types of Agriculture in World | Types Agriculture world

There are many Agriculture types, I will discuss main/working types of Agriculture

  • Subsistence Agriculture

Subsistence farming

Subsistence farming is growing food for your own family, As a backyard vegetable garden. The farmers or their family produced grains for themselves or in the local market.

  • Intensive Agriculture

Intensive Agriculture using large amounts of labour and capital and use in the field large amount of fertilizer, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. The one crop can be raised per year.

  • Shifting Agriculture

At first, chose the land, there growing the crop and after the harvest that crops they fire the residues and they grow next crop in other places.

  • Extensive Agriculture

Extensive Agriculture

This is the modern types of agriculture farming. Extensive Farming cultivation which uses less limited resources, such as labour, investment, machinery, etc. Due to the large land acquisition, production of total crop is high but less production of each unit.

  • Dry and farming

Dry land of Agriculture

Farming without irrigation in a grassland region. Only crops such as grains, that don’t require significant water, can be grown in dryland farming. It refers to all such crops which are drought resistant and can complete their life cycle without irrigation.

  • Wetland farming

Many areas are affected heavy monsoon rains and well irrigation areas, there cultivated Paddy, jute and sugarcane and collect beater result.

  • Commercial Agriculture

Commercial agriculture

The producer is farming with intent to sell some all production, they are participating in commerce thus the name Commercial farming.The Commercial farming profitable crop is cotton, Wheat, Corn and Sugarcane.

List of Agriculture Crop


Paddy, Wheat, Barley, Corn, Oat, Broomcorn, Various Millets, Canary seed, Teff, Maize and many more


Soybean, Sunflower, Flax, Sesame, Mustard and many more.


Mungo Bean, Lima Bean, Adzuki Bean, Lentil, Lima Bean and many more.

List of Horticulture crop

Fruit Vegetable

Ladyfinger, Tomato, Brinjal, Capsicum, Chillies, Bottle gourd, Ridge gourd, Snake gourd, Watermelon, Bitter Gourd,  and many more.

Root and Tuber crop

Potato, Carrot, Radish, Dioscorea, Sweet Potato, Chinese Potato, Tapioca and many more

Green leaf crop

Cabbage, Cauliflower, Curry Leaf, Celery

Bulb Vegetable

Small Onion, Minor Vegetable, Bellary Onion.

I hope you get meaningful information about Types of Agriculture in world or types Agriculture world. If you like our article then share on social media.

Maize cultivation process | Corn Cultivation information

Maize other name is Corn, it is a most popular Emerging crop. Maize plant knows as Blackbone of America, Queen of Maize. The Botanical name is Zea mays, the family name is Grasses. In India maize is the third important crops after Wheat and Rice. Maize can be grown throwout in a year in the most important Asian country. It is used as a raw material in many industrial products. Maize origin is Mexico and it is Caryopsis fruit, chromosome number is 2n=20. Maize male inflorescence knows as ‘Tassel’ and female inflorescence knows as Silk. Let’s talk Maize cultivation process.Maize cultivation

Top 10 Maize Health benefits 

  • Prevent Cancer
  • Protects your Heart
  • Control Diabetes
  • Protects Eye and skin
  • The best source of fibre
  • Helps Weight Loss
  • Source of Energy
  • Manganese Rich
  • Prevents Hypertension
  • May Prevent Alzheimers

Maize Production top 10 country’s

United States, Chine, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France, Argentina, South Africa and Ukraine.

Maize cultivation process | Corn Cultivation

Maize varieties name

Commercial- Vijay, Amber, Jawahar, Sona, Kisan, Vikram,

Hybrid- Ganga Safed 2, Ganga 4, Hi-starch, Ganga, Himalayan 123, Rajendra hybrid Makka 2. More Details Study Maize variety name.

Seed Collect and seed treatment

At first chose the seed was pest, diseases and weed free, the seed should be the purchase reliable store or very famous store.

At first seed treatment with Trichoderma viride or Mancozeb M-45 or Carbendazim or Azosprillum.

Sowing Time for Maize cultivation process

Spring Season- First week of February

Kharif season- Last week of June to the Second week of July.

Rabi season- Last week of October to the second week of November.

Maize seed required for Corn cultivation

10-11kg maize seeds are required per hectare for maize cultivation

Sowing Method

Sowing 2 seeds per hill and plant to plant spacing 10cm.

Climate Required for Maize cultivation process

Generally, maize seed growth temperature between 22-300 C. and most tolerates as temperature as 350 C.  Maize crop rainfall required 50-90cm per year.

Maize field

Soil required for Maize cultivation process

Maize plant successfully grows done various soil as Clay loam, Sand loamy, and black cotton soil. For better production soil should be good organic matter content having high water-holding capacity. Soil pH range is 5.5 to 7.0

Land Preparation for Corn Cultivation

At first, all of the weed plant removed from the field, then 6 to 7-time ploughs. Second plough time you can also used lime and last plough time you can properly be mixed Organic manure as FYM or Compost or Vermicompost. Organic fertilizer does discuss in the manure and fertilizer paragraph.

Manure and Fertilizers

Apply 13 to 14 tons FYM or Compost or Vermicompost per hectare field.  Apply fertilizer NPK 30:40:20kg per heater. At first, you can be divided Nitrogen fertilizer fertilizers three part and Phosphorus fertilizers two parts. Sowing time you can apply one part Nitrogen or one part Phosphate and full Potash. After 25 days of sowing then you can apply one part Nitrogen and last part Potash and after 45 days of sowing then you can apply last part Nitrogen. And you can also use Zine, Iron, Manganese, Copper apply for soil test report.

Irrigation Required for Maize cultivation process

At first, Irrigation required sowing time, then irrigation depends on soil moisture. Mainly Maize plant required irrigation during 3rd or 4th days. Generally, up to 25 to 30 days, Maize cultivation process required less irrigation.

Weed Control methods

The measure weeds plants are Cynodon, Setarin glauca, and Sanwa. This weeds mainly attack in Maize cultivation field. You can apply Herbicide is Simazine then properly control field weeds.

Maze Yield

Harvesting and Yield

Generally, maize harvesting time is Mid September to October. When the green cover of the Maize crop becomes white in the field of crop soaking in the Cultivation.

Maize yield depends on variety, climate, soil, irrigation, Fertilizer and pest and diseases control. In an average maize harvesting yield 2500kg per hector.

If you have any question about Maize cultivation process this topic then feel free comment us in the below section.

lemon tree indoor plant | Growing a lemon tree indoor plant

Lemon is a very healthy improvement in fruits. These fruits are the crisp and tangy aroma of lemon is unmistakable and it uses many beauty products and many different households. Lemon Botanical name is Citrus Limonum and family is Rutaceae. This fruit is provided very high vitamin. So everyone can try growing a lemon tree indoors or lemon tree indoor plant.

Can I grow a lemon tree indoors

We told you yes you can grow a lemon tree indoors. At first, you can follow our article then fully understand. We step by step discuss as Soil type, Proper Climate, Variety, Season time, Fertilizers, water required, Protection pest and diseases and Harvesting & Yield.

Lemon tree in pot

lemon tree indoor plant | Growing lemon trees in pots

Pot Chose

At first, select a pot of 25% longer than the root ball of the plant. The clay vessel Is ideal because it is unclear than the plastic and the water flows from the side.

Choosing a Plant for lemon tree indoor plant

The Lemon plant can grow from seed but is not the best option for growing the lemon tree for indoor or pot. At first select, a disease-free plant age is two to three years old. So purchase a healthy beautiful lemon tree and This plant should buy one reputable nursery then avoid diseases or inferior plants.

Soil Required

All type soil you can grow the lemon tree but better result provided soil is heavy clay and high caliche soil, salty soil and pH levels between 5.5 to 7.0,

Climate Required for growing a lemon tree indoors

Growing lemon temperature range is 10-350 C. Sunlight required  7 to 8 hours essential for plant growth. If you increase the growth of a lemon tree, it must improve the specific moisture level, 50% is ideal.

World Top 10 lemon pot Variety

  • Australian Finger Lime
  • Improve Meyer Lemon
  • Calamondin
  • Dwarf Bearss Seedless Lime
  • Kumquat
  • Minneola Tangelo
  • Kieffer
  • Wekiwa Tangelo
  • Yuzu (Japanese Citron)
  • Owari Satsuma Mandarin Orange

Lemon tree small age

Water Required

A first check the moisture level before watering. Lemon-tree water required regularly but this tress leaves fall regularly then stop regularly water and gives water during 3-4 days.

Lemon Diseases Control 

Lemon diseases are the big problem. Ths main attack lemon diseases are Scrab, Damping of Seedling, Ring Sport, Gummosis. We also discuss one article you can study this article then fully understand how to lemon disease identification.

Fertilizer Required for lemon tree indoor plant

You can use Organic manure then more come Flower and fruits. When you prepared pot this time you can apply Compost orVermicompost or Farm yard manure 100-150gm and apply Chemical fertilizer NPK 12:6:6 gm. After six months you can apply same organic manure does,  one month later and later apply Urea (5gm) mixed water. Apply after six-month Micronutrients as Iron, Zinc and Manganese.

Harvesting for lemon tree indoor plant

Harvesting depends on climate, soil types and variety. When your lemon fruits are soft and turn yellow this time you pick up. Use shears to pick up the lemon tree otherwise fruits get ready then pick up with finger easily.

Bottle gourd diseases management | Control method

Cucurbitaceae family Bottle gourd is a very oldest and very famous vegetable. It is also known other name like as Winter melon, Fuzzy melon, and White gourd. How to cultivated Bottle gourd and Bottle gourd pest control method we already discuss pleases study this article. So let start Bottle gourd diseases management.

Alternaria leaves blight

Alternaria leve blight

Alternaria leaves blight caused by leakage fungus Alternaria cucumerina. This diseases mostly damage Watermelon, pumpkin, Bottle gourd and squash. This disease is a small, yellow-brown spot with a yellow or green hello which appeared on the first oldest leaves. These streaks cause internal degradation of the fruit and primarily infects the infected fruits. The damaged plants will become weak, produce fewer fruits, and the fruit will be ineffective.


i) Use drip irrigation to reduce the spread of bacteria by overhead irrigation

ii) Use resistant varieties.

iii) Don doesn’t work in plants when wet.

iv) If you take the diseases to the primary stage, it can be effective in reducing its expansion it becomes widespread and severe.

v) Removed and destroy infected plants at the end of the season in small gardens.

Bottle gourd diseases management | Bottle gourd diseases control

Cercospora leaf spot

Cercospora is the common disease on all cucurbits vegetable. This disease is usually found in the leaves, but if the environment is suitable, the symptoms may also be petioles and pillars. There are irregular spots which watch bottle gourd vegetable.


i) At first, any diseases plant should be removed and destroyed.

ii) Crop debris should be removed after harvest

iii) Two-three years later crop rotations.

Downey Mildew

Downey Mildew bottle gourd

Downey Mildew is the serious diseases of the bottle gourd vegetable. It caused by the fungus as water mold pseudoperonspora cubensis. Once established in one area, this disease can spread, rapidly, resulting in the decrease of fruit quality and yield. Early symptoms of the small chlorotic spot on the surface of the upper surface, often the old developing crown leaves first.


i) Avoided overhead irrigation

ii) Select fields for crop cultivation and management crops and reduce moisture leaves for the developing of air circulation.

iii) Spray fungus mixture of 16 parts Dithane M-45 and parts Karathane 25WP per kg in 800-900 liters of water. And make a solution Dithane M-45 and 2gm Karathane 25WP per 5 liters of water.

Powdery Mildew for Bottle gourd diseases management

Typical light grey to white powder spots appear on the upper surface and later on the under the surface of the leaf blades, sheaths, and bracts. Infected plants become stunted due to the reduction in size and number of leaves, and produce poor yield. There are numerous small rounds of affected areas, and clithiusasia is formed in the dark.


i) The Plant is sites with good air circulation and sun exposure.

ii) Choose planting sites with good air movement and free of shade.

iii) Aureofungin 50 ppm also give good control of the diseases.

iv) Spray Carbendazim or Tridemoph 0.1%

Scab (Bottle gourd diseases management)

This fungus can attack any aboveground portions of the plant including leaves and petioles. Angular brown lesions on leaves with small veins and lesions may also present on petioles in stems and fruits.


Treat seed tubers with Agallol -3 @ 500gm/100 liters of water for 10 minutes before sowings

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