Bio fertilizers: Types, Benefits and Applications Agriculture– One of the major concerns in today world is the pollution and contamination of soil. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has caused tremendous harm to the environment. So environmentalists are pressing for the switch over to organic farming. Organic farming is the raising of the unpolluted crop through the use of manures bio fertilizers and bio-pesticides that provide optimum nutrients for crop plants, keeping pests and pathogens under control. India’s Fertilizer control order (FCO), 1985, Rhizobium, Azotobactor, Azospirillum and Blue-green Algae (BGA) have been traditionally used as Bio-fertilizers. Bio fertilizers are microorganisms which Bring about the nutrient enrichment of soil by enhancing the availability of nutrient to crops.
Bio fertilizers Types, Benefits and Applications Agriculture
Rhizobium inoculant is used leguminous crops such as pulses, Azotobacter can use with crops like wheat, maize, mustard, mustard, cotton, potato and other vegetable crops. Blue-green algae such as Nastic, Anabaena, Tolypothrix, and Aulosira fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculant for paddy crop.
Benefits of Bio fertilizers
i) Bio fertilizers have replaced the chemical fertilizers are not beneficial to the plant they decrease the growth and make the environment polluted by releasing the harmful chemical.
ii) They can at best minimize the use of chemical fertilizers not exceeding 40-50kg /ha under ideal agronomic and pest-free conditions.
iii) Bio fertilizers destroy those harmful components from the soil which cause diseases in the plants. Plants can also protect against drought and other strict conditions by using bio-fertilizers.
iv) Some bio-fertilizers (Rhizobium, BGA, Azotobactor sp eg.) stimulate the production of growth promoting substance like vitamin-B complex, Indole acetic acid (IAA) and Gibberellic acid etc.
v) They are environment-friendly protect the environment against pollutants.
vi) Mycorrhiza or VA- mycorrhiza (vam fungi) when used a bio-fertilizers enhance uptake of P, Zn, s, and water leading to the uniform. Crop growth and increased yield and also enhance resistance to root diseases and improve hardiness of transplant stock.
vii) Bio-fertilizers used the soil then improve the soil fertility and the natural habitat as well as increase the crop yield by 20% to 30%.
viii) Nitrogen-fixing, phosphate mobilizing and cellulolytic microorganisms in bio-fertilizer enhance the civaiablty of plant nutrients in the soil and thus, sustain the agricultural production and farming system.
ix) The organic materials and the acids they are found in the bio-fertilizers include humic acid and fulvic acids, organic fungi and organic fertilizer nutrients.
x) The bio-fertilizers can help by supplementing other fertilizers as well as aid other organisms and beneficial bacteria to grow and build soil.
xi) Blue-green algae like Nostoc, Anabaena, and seytonema are often employed in the reclamation of alkaline soil.
xii) BGA plays a vital role in the nitrogen economy of rice fields in tropical regions.
xiii) They are environment-friendly and protect the environment against pollutants.
xiv) Plays an impotent role in the recycling of plant nutrients.
Rhizobium is nitrogen-fixing bacteria that form root nodules on legume plants. The major N fixing systems are the symbiotic system, which can play a significant role in improving the fertility and productivity of low N soils. That is they convert dinitrogen into ammonia, Ammonia is toxic in nature. Hence they are rapidly absorbed into organic compounds.
i) Easy to use and compatible with standard seed treatment applications.
ii) Nitrogen fertilizer application is not needed.
iii) The plant growth environment can import upon plant define and symbiosis.
iv) High modulation and N- fixation.
Azotobacter is used far studying nitrogen fixation and inoculation of plants due to its rapid growth and high level of nitrogen fixation. It is used as a Bio fertilizers for all nonleguminous plant especially rice, cotton, vegetable etc.
Azospirillum can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium under a microaerobic condition at low nitrogen levels, through the action of the nitrogenase complex. They use non-leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, oilseeds cotton etc.
Azolla fronds consist of sporophyte with a floating rhizome and small overlapping bio fertilizers levels and root. Azolla can use as an ideal source of feed for cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits, and fish as an alternate source to a concentrate/feed/fodder to improve the production status of the animal.
Blue-green Algae are a type of microscopic, algae-like bacteria that inhabit freshwater, coastal and marine waters. Blue-green algae function as to several aquatic animals. Blue-green algae have a lot of character sticks that differentiate them from green algae.