Bio fertilizers: Types, Benefits and Applications Agriculture– One of the major concerns in today world is the pollution and contamination of soil. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has caused tremendous harm to the environment. So environmentalists are pressing for switch over to organic farming. Organic farming is the raising of unpolluted crop through the use of manures bio fertilizers and bio-pesticides that provide optimum nutrients crop plants, keeping pests and pathogens under control. India’s Fertilizer control order (FCO), 1985, Rizobium, Azotobactor, Azospirillum and Blue green Algae (BGA) have been traditionally used as Bio-fertilizers. Bio fertilizers are micro organisms which Bring about nutrient enrichment of soil by enhanding the available of nutrient to crops.
Bio fertilizers Types, Benefits and Applications Agriculture
Rhizobiuminoculant is use leguminous crops such as pulses, Azotobacter can used with crops like what, maize, mustard, mustard, cotton, potato and other vegetable crops. Blue green algae such as Nastoc, Anabaena, Tolypothrix and Aulosira fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculant for paddy crop.
Benefits of Bio fertilizers
i) Bio fertilizers have replaced the chemical fertilizers are not beneficial of the plant they decrease the growth and make the environment polluted by releasing harmful chemical.
ii) They can at best minimize the use of chemical fertilizers not exceeding 40-50kg /ha under ideal agronomic and pest-free conditions.
iii) Bio fertilizers destroy those harmful components from the soil which cause diseases in the plants. Plants can also protected against drought and other strict conditions by using bio-fertilizers.
iv) Some bio-fertilizers (Rhizobium, BGA, Azotobactor sp eg.) stimulate production of growth promoting substance like vitamin-B complex, Indole acetic acid (IAA) and Gibberelic acid etc.
v) They are environment friendly protect the environment against pollutants.
vi) Mycorrhiza or va- mycorrhiza (vam fugi) when used an bio-fertilizers enhance uptake of P, zn, s and water leading to uniform. Crop growth and increased yield and also enhance resistance to root diseases and improve hardiness of transplant stock.
vii) Bio-fertilizers used the soil then improve the soil fertility and the natural habitat as well as increase the crop yield by 20% to 30%.
viii) Nitrogen fixing, phosphate mobillzing and cellulolytic microoganisms in bio-fertilizer enhance the civaiablty of plant nutrients in the soil and thus, sustain the agricultural production and farming system.
ix) The organic materials and the acids the are found in the bio-fertilizers include humic acid and fulvic acids, organic fungi and organic fertilizer nutrients.
x) The bio-fertilizers can help by supplementing other fertilizers as well as aid other organimans and beneficial bacteria to grow and build soil.
xi) Blue green algae like Nostic, Anabaenna and seytonema are often employed in the reclamation of alkaline soil.
xii) BGA plays a vital role in the nitrogen economy of rice fields in tropical regions.
xiii) They are environment friendly and protect the environment against pollutants.
xiv) Plays impotent role in the recycling of plant nutrients.
Rhizobium are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that from root nodules on legume plants. The major N fixing systems are the symbiotic system, which can play a significant role in improving the fertility and productivity of low N soils. That is they convart dinitrogen into ammonia, Ammonia is toxic in nature. Hence they are rapidly absorbed into organic compounds.
i) Easy to use and compatible with standard seed treatment applications.
ii) Nitrogen fertilizer application in not needed.
iii) The plant growth environment can import upon plant define and symbiosis.
iv) High nodulation and N- fixation.
Azotobacter is used far studying nitrogen fixation and inoculation of plants due to its rapid growth and high level of nitrogen fixation. It is used as a Bio fertilizers for all non leguminaus plant especially rice, cotton, vegetable etc.
Azospirillum can convert atmosphere nitrogen into ammonium under microaerobic condition at low nitrogen levels, through the action of the nitrogenase complex. They uses non-leguminous plants such as cereals, millets, oil seeds cotton etc.
Azolla fronds consist of sporophyte with a flating rhizome and small overlapping bio fertilizers levels and root. Azolla can used as an ideal source of feed for cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and fish as an alternate source to a concentrate/feed/fodder to improve the production statues of the animal.
Blue green Algae
Blue green Algae are a type of microscopic, algae like bacteria that inhabit freshwater, coastal and marine waters. Blue green algae function as to several aquatic animals. Blue green algae have a lot of character stics that differentiate them from green algae.