Category: Agriculture Cultivation

Maize cultivation process | Corn Cultivation information

Maize other name is Corn, it is a most popular Emerging crop. Maize plant knows as Blackbone of America, Queen of Maize. The Botanical name is Zea mays, the family name is Grasses. In India maize is the third important crops after Wheat and Rice. Maize can be grown throwout in a year in the most important Asian country. It is used as a raw material in many industrial products. Maize origin is Mexico and it is Caryopsis fruit, chromosome number is 2n=20. Maize male inflorescence knows as ‘Tassel’ and female inflorescence knows as Silk. Let’s talk Maize cultivation process.Maize cultivation

Top 10 Maize Health benefits 

  • Prevent Cancer
  • Protects your Heart
  • Control Diabetes
  • Protects Eye and skin
  • The best source of fibre
  • Helps Weight Loss
  • Source of Energy
  • Manganese Rich
  • Prevents Hypertension
  • May Prevent Alzheimers

Maize Production top 10 country’s

United States, Chine, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France, Argentina, South Africa and Ukraine.

Maize cultivation process | Corn Cultivation

Maize varieties name

Commercial- Vijay, Amber, Jawahar, Sona, Kisan, Vikram,

Hybrid- Ganga Safed 2, Ganga 4, Hi-starch, Ganga, Himalayan 123, Rajendra hybrid Makka 2. More Details Study Maize variety name.

Seed Collect and seed treatment

At first chose the seed was pest, diseases and weed free, the seed should be the purchase reliable store or very famous store.

At first seed treatment with Trichoderma viride or Mancozeb M-45 or Carbendazim or Azosprillum.

Sowing Time for Maize cultivation process

Spring Season- First week of February

Kharif season- Last week of June to the Second week of July.

Rabi season- Last week of October to the second week of November.

Maize seed required for Corn cultivation

10-11kg maize seeds are required per hectare for maize cultivation

Sowing Method

Sowing 2 seeds per hill and plant to plant spacing 10cm.

Climate Required for Maize cultivation process

Generally, maize seed growth temperature between 22-300 C. and most tolerates as temperature as 350 C.  Maize crop rainfall required 50-90cm per year.

Maize field

Soil required for Maize cultivation process

Maize plant successfully grows done various soil as Clay loam, Sand loamy, and black cotton soil. For better production soil should be good organic matter content having high water-holding capacity. Soil pH range is 5.5 to 7.0

Land Preparation for Corn Cultivation

At first, all of the weed plant removed from the field, then 6 to 7-time ploughs. Second plough time you can also used lime and last plough time you can properly be mixed Organic manure as FYM or Compost or Vermicompost. Organic fertilizer does discuss in the manure and fertilizer paragraph.

Manure and Fertilizers

Apply 13 to 14 tons FYM or Compost or Vermicompost per hectare field.  Apply fertilizer NPK 30:40:20kg per heater. At first, you can be divided Nitrogen fertilizer fertilizers three part and Phosphorus fertilizers two parts. Sowing time you can apply one part Nitrogen or one part Phosphate and full Potash. After 25 days of sowing then you can apply one part Nitrogen and last part Potash and after 45 days of sowing then you can apply last part Nitrogen. And you can also use Zine, Iron, Manganese, Copper apply for soil test report.

Irrigation Required for Maize cultivation process

At first, Irrigation required sowing time, then irrigation depends on soil moisture. Mainly Maize plant required irrigation during 3rd or 4th days. Generally, up to 25 to 30 days, Maize cultivation process required less irrigation.

Weed Control methods

The measure weeds plants are Cynodon, Setarin glauca, and Sanwa. This weeds mainly attack in Maize cultivation field. You can apply Herbicide is Simazine then properly control field weeds.

Maze Yield

Harvesting and Yield

Generally, maize harvesting time is Mid September to October. When the green cover of the Maize crop becomes white in the field of crop soaking in the Cultivation.

Maize yield depends on variety, climate, soil, irrigation, Fertilizer and pest and diseases control. In an average maize harvesting yield 2500kg per hector.

If you have any question about Maize cultivation process this topic then feel free comment us in the below section.

Soybean plant information | Soybean cultivation Technology

Soybeans are an edible legume that is very nutrients. Soybean is one of the most stable Kharif crops in India. Let us have a look at Soybean plant information. Soybean botanical name is “Glycine max” and family is ‘Legumes’. Its cultivated country is the USA, Brazil, Argentina, China, India, Paraguay, Canada and many more. Soybean contains 20% high-quality oils and 40% protein. Besides this, it also a source of vitamin B complex, thiamine, and riboflavin.

soybean seeds

Soybean plant information

Top 10 health benefits for Soybean

i)Control Diabetes

ii) Improve Bone Health

iii) Boost Digestion

iv) Boost Heart Health

v) Prevent Cancer

vi) Control weight

vii) Improving your sleep.

viii) Improving circulation and oxygenation

ix) Improve your digestive health

x) Make hair Shine

Climate Required for Soybean

Soybeans will be grown in many different climates but today discuss best within a certain range. Soybean cultivation required a cool temperature. The temperature ranges from 26 to 300 C but mostly depends on the soybean varieties. Soil temperature 160 C or above for very good germination. A low temperature may cause to delay the flowering.

Soil required (Soybean plant information)

Soybean is highly adaptable and will be grown in most soils, although they can have trouble in heavy clay. PH range between 6.0-7.5 is most favorable for soybean farming. Water stay then damage to soybean roots, rainy season time required good soil drainage.

Variety of Soybean

i) M.A.C.S.-57,      ii) M.A.C.S.-13,       iii) M.A.C.S.-124,       iv) PK-472,J.S.-80,        v) J.S.-335,         vi)P.K.- 1029,    vii) Punjab 1,       viii) Pusa-16,         ix) Pusa 22,         x) Pusa-24,       xi) Pusa-20,            xii) Type 49.

Seed rate of soybean cultivation

  • Small grain varieties- 70kg/ha
  • Medium grain variety-80kg/ha
  • Large grain variety- 100kg/ha

Best season of seed sowing

Best season of seed sowing – 3rd week of June to 2nd week of July.

Seed Treatment

Soybean seeds should be treated with rhizobium culture or Carbendazim or Trichoderma viride 4gm/kg of seeds

Soybean plant

Seed spacing and depth

  • 45-60cm x 2.5cm for Kharif crop and 30-45cm x 2.5cm during spring season.
  • 3-4cm light soils and 2-3cm in heavy soils.

Fertilizers required (Soybean plant information)

Apply organic fertilizers Farm yard manure or Compost or Vermicompost 5 ton/ha. Apply Inorganic fertilizers 40kg Urea, 360kg Superphosphate, 50kg Muriate of potash, 25kg Zinc sulphate and 10kg Borax.

Irrigation required for soybean

In the Kharif season does not require irrigation, it is grown rainfed. In the summer and spring season irrigation needs 5-6 times. During the rainy season make sure crop soil has proper drainage to avoid waterlogging.

Soybean Pest and Diseases control

If you cultivated then facing many problems so one by one discuss that

Soybean insect pest management

Soybean plant diseases 

Harvesting time

Soybean plant period range from 50-145 days but depends on the varieties. When all the leaves turn yellow and fall off and stalk stand only with pods. Cut the entire plant when most of the pods have turned yellow during the processing and fully watch harvest time moisture content in the seeds should be 15%.

The Yield of Soybean for Soybean plant information

Its fully depends on the variety of seed cultivation, average yield production is 20-35 quintal/ha.

instrument used in seed processing


Instrument used in seed processing.

instrument used in seed processing
instrument used in seed processing
INSTRUMENTS USED IN SEED TECHNOLOGY
1. Stick or Sleeve type seed trier :
     This seed trier with different slots and chambers with and open system. This is used for seed sampling from different layers of seed lot.instrument used in seed processing
2.This type seed trier:
         It is a straight trier with only one space for seed sample collection. This is not recommended for sampling.
3. Nobbe type seed trier :
        To Collect seed from heap or gunny bags.
4. Boerner type seed divider :
     To divide seeds into two equal parts. It is operated manually.
5. Gamet type seed divider :
     To divide seeds into equal proportions and to convert composite sample to working sample. It is electrically operated.
6. Riffle type seed divider :
        To divide composite sample into working sample.
7. Seed blower :
        To separate lighter particles, chaffy and immature seed from the normal, healthy seeds. The lighter particles are separated by wind pressure at the top of the tube at an angle.
8. Aspirator :
        By this instrument, pure seeds are separated from dockage particles by air pressure. The Components are collected at different places of instrument.
9. Purity Analysis Board :
      This board is used for both physical and genetical purity analysis over a light source by a magnifying glass.
10. Seed Scarifier :
     This instrument having a black sand paper inside which polishes or scarified the seed coat to help water absorption. This instrument is used for pea, and other crop seed where the seed coat not allows water absorption, leading to seed dormancy. So, seed scarifier helps to remove dormancy.
11. Seed Grinder :
      It is used to determine the seed moisture content by grinding the seeds.

12.  Seed Polisher :
    It is normally used in rice, where the pericarp is slightly red or brown, is removed by polishing, helping to obtain rice grain with white, polished texture and giving more value at market.
13. Digital moisture meter :
        Here the seed moisture is determined electrically and reading is indicated  digitally and it is proportional to the electric current flow. This is a quick method than oven method.
14. Seed Grader :
        This instrument is used for up gradation of grains or seeds by using different sieves like upper and lower. The sieves are with slotted (long) or rounded perforations depending on crop seeds. The high value, equal size seeds are separated from other broken seeds, unequal seeds and impurity.
15. Desiccator :
      This is a small storage or container for seeds. The lower portion of desiccator  is normally filled with dehumidifiers like fused calcium chloride or silica gel. The silica gel are white, crystalling chemicals, hygroscopic in nature. instrument used in seed processing.After water absorption the silica gel turns blue indicating time to change it. After sun dry, this blue silica gel turns colourless and can be reused.
   

sunflower cultivation India | sunflower farming information

Sunflower is a most important oilseed throwout the World. It is a beautiful flower and a great health. Usually, sunflower seeds contain about  46-52 percent edible oil. Today I fully discuss sunflower cultivation India.

 1.Land requirement (sunflower cultivation India)
I)                    Selection of field should be done where sunflower was not grown in the previous year unless they were of the same variety and were of equivalent or higher class and were certified. selected plots should be well drained and the soil deep, fertile and neutral PH.
.       Seed Standards
a)      Pure seed:  Minimum 98% both FS and CS.
b)      Inert Matter: Maximum inert matter 2% both for FS and CS.
c)       Other Crop Seeds: None
d)      Germination Percentage: Minimum 70.0 % both for FS and CS.
e)      Moisture Content: Maximum 9.0% or 7.0% for Ordinary and vapor proof pack both for FS and CS.

sunflower cultivation India

      Sunflower cultivation Seed rate :
    Seed rate is 15kg/ha. Selected good quality seeds. Use seeds retained by 12/64 (4.7 mm diameter) round performed sieve or BSS 5 *5 wire mesh sieve for Ec 1011495. For other varieties use 9/64” ( 3.5 mm diameter) round performed sieve and window to eliminate chaffy, light and broken seeds.
sunflower seeds cultivation in india
sunflower cultivation India
     Season and varieties :
For raising seed crop, February to March was to be the best season registering higher seed yield and seed quality attributes.
       Application of fertilizers and micronutrients to sunflower cultivation India
    Application of 12.5 t/ha of FYM or Compost evenly on the field before the last ploughing and incorporation in the soil by working a country plough is recommended. Apply NPK fertilizer basally as per soil test recommendations. If soil test recommendations are not available, follow the blanket recommendation of 60:45:45 kg NPK/ha. Azospirillum soil application i.e. mixes 10 pockets (2000g/ha) of inoculants with 25kg FYM and 25 kg soil and apply before sowing.
           Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrients mixture with enough sand to make a total quantity of 50 kg/ha. Apply the mixture over the furrows and top two-thirds of the ridges before sowing. Do not incorporate the mixture into the soil. To overcome manganese deficiency, foliar spray of 0.5% MnSo4  on 30, 40 and 50 days of sowing and for zinc deficiency, apply 25 kg/ha Znso4 as basal or 0.5% Znso4 spray on 30, 40 and 50th day of sowing is recommended.
       Seed Treatment :
    In fresh sunflower cultivation India (1to5-month-old) germination will be low due to dormancy. Hence they should be soaked in an aqueous solution of Potassium nitrated at 0.5 percent concentration for 16 hours in open plastic container, then wash and air-dry the seeds. Soaking seeds in 2 percent ZnSo4 solution for 12 hrs and shade drying recommendation for rainfed sowing.
     Treating the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4g/kg old seed is recommended or This can be done just before sowing. The seeds can be treated with carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g /kg of seeds. Treat the seeds 24 hours prior to sowing. About 3 packets ( 600g/ha of Azospirillum inoculant for treating seeds using rice kanji as a binder. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes and sow immediately.
       Sowing  for sunflower farming
A spacing of 45 x 30 cm is given and the seeds at the depth of 3 cm were placed along the furrows in which the fertilizer mixture was placed and then cover with soil. Place two seeds per hole. In modern cultivar spacing of 30 x 30 cm was the optimum for the seed crop in getting maximum seed yield seed quality. Gap fill and pull out seedlings leaving only one healthy and vigorous seedling in each hole on 10 the day of sowing.
         Field Inspection stages :
   Sunflower farming Minimum 3 field inspection should be done from flowery to harvest stage.
 Field Standards :
      Land and Isolation Distance.
      The I.D. should be 400 and 200 m for F & C seeds respectively.
        Seed Standards :
a)      Pure seed: Minimum 98% pure seed and none other crop seed.
b)      Germination Percentage: Minimum 70.0 % both for FS and CS.
c)       Moisture Content: Maximum M.C. should be 9% or 7% for ordinary and vapor proof pack respectively.
       Foliar application of Hormone
                   Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 20 ppm concentration (280 g NAA in 625 liters water ). Spray is given. Spray 0.25 percent micronutrients at 4 melanin growth stage are recommended for increased seed setting. The Higher number of seeds due to the application of GA and increased seed yield, oil yield and seed quality attributes in modern sunflower is observed. The crop was supplemented with the nutrition of GA @ 100 ppm on 45th days after sowing.
      Roguing for sunflower cultivation India
     sunflower cultivation is rogued based on plant height, head size and color of seeds during pre-flowering stage up to harvest.
     Harvesting and Grading for Sunflower farming
    When the drooping pendular receptacle turns lemon or pale yellow in color the crop is harvested and at this stage, the seed moisture content will be about 25 percent and the seeds will be black in color. The heads were cut and dried immediately until the seeds contain 15 to 16 percent moisture and then separate the seeds with a mechanical thresher or manual labor and pre-cleaning was done.
        A sieve with 9/64” (3.6 mm) diameter, round perforated or BSS 7 x7-wire mesh sieve is used. Removed broken seeds. The seed grading is very important for getting the higher yield with good quality was reported by many scientists.
       Storage
For short period of storage., up to 6 months, dry the seeds to 7 – 8 percent moisture content and store in a cloth bag. For long period of storage beyond 10 months, dry the seeds to 5-6 percent moisture content and store them in high-density polythene ( 700 gauge thick ) bag. Heat seal the bag.
Paddy pest and Disease
       Mid storage correction(sunflower cultivation India)
     Hydration-dehydration (H-DH) treatment for 5 months old seeds using Disodium phosphate (10-4M) for 6 hours, prolonged the storage life up to one year. Mid storage hydration dehydration treatment given to 5-6-month-old achenes recorded minimum deterioration of achenes even ambient storage for 7 months when they were stored in 700 gauge polythene bag.
 

sesame cultivation practices | Sesame seeds farming

Sesame cultivation practices– Sesame is an oldest oilseeds crops.  Sesame seeds oil content is 40-48 percent. Sesame oil seeds botanical name is Sesamum indicum, and its family is Pedaliaceae. Sesame seeds cultivated many color varieties Example is Red, Black, Yellow, and White( max cultivated Red seeds). Sesame seeds cultivation practices during the Kharif season in India.

 

 1 Season:

        The best season for raising sesame seed crop is April to May.

Sesame cultivation practices in India

2. Application of fertilizers:

 

 

  Spread FYM or composted coir pith or compost @ 12.5 t/ha evenly on the ploughed land and plough it in. Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil tests are not available, follow the blanket recommendations of 50:25:25 kg/ka with manganese sulfate @ 5kg/ha. Apply full dose of N, P and K basally. Open furrows to a depth of 5 cm and 30 cm apart of 3 cm with soil before sowing. If furrow application is not done, broadcast the fertilizer mixture evenly on the before sowing.

3. Foliar application :

        DAP 1 percent spray at that time of first flowering and again 10 days after the first spray ensure well-filled quality seeds. Nachimuthu (14) observed the increased number of a capsule, 100 seed weight, seed and oil yield over untreated control by the application of Arappu+ MnSo4 pelleting treatment with MnSo4 foliar spray.

4. seed rate:

      Adopt a seed rate of 5kg/ha.

 

5.Spacing (sesame cultivation practices )

       A spacing of 30 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants found the optimum. For rice follows the sesame seeds are broadcasted and thinned to maintain 11 plants / m2.

Agriculture latest news (study purpose)

6.Quality seeds :

       Select mature, good quality seeds free from pest and fungal damage. Use seeds retained by 4/64’ diameter (1.6 mm) round perforated sieve and winnow to remove light and broken ones.

7. Seed treatment(sesame cultivation practices)

  Treat the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4 g/kg. This can be done just before sowing. It is compatible with biofertilizers and such seeds should not be treated with fungicides. Treat the seeds with Thiram or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed before sowing.

8. Sowing :

     The sesame seed cultivation sowing is preferably in line. Mix the seeds with 4 times its volume of dry sand and drop the mixture evenly along the furrows in which fertilizers are applied. Thin out the seedlings to a spacing of 15cm between plants on the 15th day and 30 cm on the 30th day of sowing. Sow the seeds to a depth of 3 cm and cover with soil. In heavy soils, seedlings at the four-leaf stage are transplanted to ensure adequate population. Transplanting 14 to 18 days old seedling is highly beneficial and it induces branches and reduces the seed rate to 50 percent. While transplanting care is needed not to bend the seedling as it seedling as it will break with high mortality.

What is pesticide or how to use pesticide

9. Roguing :

   Based on branching behavior, size of the capsule, color of capsule and color of seeds, the rogues are to be removed periodically.

10. Harvest(sesame cultivation practices)

              Harvest when 75 to 80 percent pods start yellowing and bottom 1 or 2 pods have dehisced. At this stage, the pod moisture content will 50 to 60 percent and seeds moisture content will be 25-30 percent and the seed will attain chocolate brown in color. Stack the stalks vertically and allow them to air dry protecting from moisture, shake the stalks to separate the seeds. Report drying until all the mature pods have dehisced to shed the seeds.

11. Mid storage correction :

       When the stored seeds of gingelly showing declining trend in germination should be removed from storage and pre-cleaned. The seeds are then soaked for 2 hours in double the volume of disodium phosphate solution ( 3.60 g/100 lit of water ). If salty is not available, potable water can be used. The floaters should be removed. The seeds the bottom should be spread over a clean gunny bag and air dried, dressed with carbendazim @ 2 G/kg of seeds and stored.

12. Seed storage(sesame cultivation practices)

      For short-term storage i.e. for a period of 4 to 5 months the seeds may be packed in fresh gada cloth bag or gunny bag. For long storage, the moisture content should be reduced to 5 to 6 percent and then dry dressed with bavistin and packed in paper aluminum foil polyethylene laminated bag and completely lead sealed to make the bag airtight. 

That is sesame seeds cultivation process. If you any problem then comment this box then our team solve that.

Paddy seeds production

Agriculture pest and disease management

    

Wheat seed production technique India

Wheat seed production with cultivation method

seed production technique in wheat
Certified ( C) and Foundation (F) wheat seed production (Triticum spp)
Wheat is a one of the important cereal crop and India is the second largest producer of wheat in the world after china. In modern Agriculture in exploiting the full potential of a variety. The wheat seed production that reaches to the farmers should have given high genetic purity as well as high physical, physiological and health quality. In Indian farmers select and save the seed next year sowing so therefore the seed supplied to the farmers should be best quality wheat seed production. Therefore best practice to produce quality seed should be followed –
1.     .1  Land 
            For seed production the land shall be free of volunteer plants. The field should be well-drained, free of weeds and soil neither be too acidic nor too alkaline. Contamination of “ Kernal bunt” disease can be reduced by increasing intervals between crops.
2.     2.  I.D.
        In wheat the extent of cross-pollination varies from 1 to 4% Normally I.D. is 3 meters and all round wheat field a non-cereal crop is planted. In case of variety susceptible to Ustilago spp., the I.D. is 150 meters, where loose smut infection is in excess of 0.1% F.S. production and 0.5% in C.S. production. This distance is maintained for fields with infection of loose-smut in wheat, Triticale and Rye also.

 Wheat seed production in India

3.   3    A.  Field Standards
i)                    Minimum number of inspection and stages : 2 from flowering to harvest.
ii)                   Maximum off types (%) permitted : 0.05 and 0.20(ear heads) for F.S.  and C.S. respectively.
B. Specific requirements
   i) Standards for offtypes and inseparable other crops shall be met at the final inspection and for loose smut shall be met at any inspection conducted between ear emergence and harvesting.
ii) Inseparable other crops shall be : barley, oats, triticale and gram.
iii)                 Seed brone disease shall be : loose smut (Ustilago tritici Jens.)
4.    4.   Seed standards
  • ·         Pure seed (minimum) Foundation  – 98.0%, Certified- 98.0%
  • ·         Inert matter(maximum) F- 2.0% , C- 2.0%
  • ·         Other crop seeds (maximum) F- 10/kg, C – 20/kg.
  • ·         Total weed seeds (maximum ) F- 10/kg, C-20/kg
  • ·         Objectionable weed seeds (maximum) F-2/kg, 5/kg.
  • ·         Seeds infested with Nematode gall of Ear-cockle    None
  • ·         Seeds infected by karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) F-0.050%, C-0.250%
  • ·         Germination (minimum) F- 85%, C-85%
  • ·         Moisture(maximum) F-12.0%, C-12.0%
  • ·         For vapor proof-containers(maximum) F- 8.0%, C-8.%
  • Objectionable weeds shall be: wild morning glory (Hirankhuri) (Convolulus arvenis L.) and Gulli danda (Phalaris minor Retz.)
5.     5Harvest, cleaning and bagging
      Combine only when moisture content below 16%, start combining from later morning hours. Wheat seed is very dry at harvest. Before monsoons the seeds should be stored in a dry, insect and rodent free godown.
6.    6.   Seed yield
Average 30 to 40 quintals per ha. wheat seed production.
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