What is fumigation and there full study

Hydrogen cyanide or Hydrocyanic acid(HCN)
                    Trade name : Cynogas; Formulation : Dust; Dose : 10-16 g NaCH 98% pure with 20-30 ml H2SO4 and 40-60 ml water/m3 for general fumigation. Use : It is useful for disinfection of plant material intended for propagation. The plants to be fumigated should not be watered for some hours prior to fumigation. The plants to be  should not be watered for some hours prior to fumigation. Gas masks should be used at the time of fumigation.
Carbon bisulphide
         Also known as carbon disulphide (CS2) ; Formulation : Liquid from : Dose : 160g/m3of space or 3.5-5.0 litres/1000kg grain for 36-72 hours ; Use : Effective against stored grain pests, wood borers, pests of clothes, bots and intestinal larvae in animals (when administered in the form of capsules), soil insects and nematodes.
EDCT Mixture (kiloptera), CH2Cl-CH2Cl 
                   Formulation : Liquid (mixture of 3 parts of ethylene dichloride and 1 part of carbon tetrachloride). 500 ml , 1,5 litres tin containers ; Dose : 30-40 kg/100 m3 or 40 g/quintal ; Use : It is popularly used for the control of stored grain pests in the bag and bulk due to least hazard involved in its use. It its use. It can be safely used on kinds of cereals, millets and pulses except on oilseeds, spices and milled products. Required exposure period is 24-72 hours.
                   Also known as ethylene dibromide ; Formulation : Ampoules of 3,6,10,15, and 30ml ; Dose : 3ml/quintal or 22g(10cc)/m3;
             In small quantites  of food grains say upto 1 quintal, a 3 ml ampoule is broken gently just below the top surface of grain with a piece of brick, etc. The opening is immediately sealed. in larger quantities say upto 10 quintals of food grain the ampoules are to be distributed evenly  in the grain. Use : Effective against stored grain pests of all stages. It should not be used on oilseeds, moist grains and milled products.


Aluminium phosphide(ph3)
                Trade name : Phosphume , Delicia , Celphos, Quickphos, Phostoxin , etc. Formulation : Tablet or pellet form of 3 gms. Dose : 1 to 2 tablets/ ton or 140 tablets/100m3 wit hexposure period of minimum 3 days which may be extended up to 5 days ; Use : It is used for safe and effective control of all the common stored grain insects in a variety of stored commodities like cereals, millets, pulses, spices, oilseeds, milled products in bulk, bag stackes or in other packages. Formulation with ALP tablets should be done under perfect air-tight conditions In storage structures / godowns away from the living room and should be undertaken by trained personal only.
       ALP pellets are used extensively and conveniently for rat burrow fumigation against field rats. It is applied @ 2 tablets of 0.5 g weight per live rat burrow with the help of a simple rod like hollow applicator. The opening of the rat burrow should be plugged with mud to check the escaping gas.


Methyl bromide(Trichloronitromethane)
         Trade name : Embafume, Bedfume, Dowfume MC, Pestmaster ; Dose 1-2 lb/1000ft2
                      These chemicals are used for fumigation pot soil, seeds. They are applied by injector under the plastic seal as they are highly volatile.
            Formulation : Dust and WP ; Dose : 12g/m3 ; Use : As a soil fumigants it is used for controlling apple woolly aphid. It is recommended for the control of carpet beetles, cloth moths and dermestids damaging museum specimens. It is not used against any stored grain pest.
         Formulation : Ampoules of 11,22 and 30 ml for small  quantities of foodgrains stored in rural storage sructuries. Dose : 11 ml/quintal with an exposure period of 7 days. Method of application is same as EDB. Grains should be aerated before consumption. Use : It is a mixture of EDB. And carbon tetrachloride in the ratio of 1:8w/w. It has a greater penetration power and hence can be used for bagged storage under gas proof cover also. It is equally effective in rural storage structures.