Category: pest and disease

Lemon diseases identification | Citrus diseases treatment

If you are lucky enough to be able to grow your own lemon tree but you can face many problems like soil problem, pest problem or diseases problem. So we actually discuss this article how to lemon diseases identification.

Lemon diseases identification | Citrus diseases control

Lemon Canker

Lemon canker treatment

Citrus canker is the Bacterial disease. This disease affects all the above-ground parts like twigs, leaves, thorns, older, branches, petioles and fruit. At first, leaves become small, round water soaked and yellowish spots on the leaves. This damage created by larvae that feed by creating shallow mines. The injury on the fruit is only on the skin and there is no effect on the pulp or juice. These fruits get less than market value.

Management

i) Grow canker-resistant varieties.

ii) Prune the affected twigs before the monsoon.

iii) Spraying of neem cake solution @ 50gm/litre of water during the rainy season at 15 days interval.

iv) Spray 125gm Streptocycline + 62gm Copper sulphate in 1250 litres of water.

Citrus Scab

Lemon scab treatment

Citrus scab caused by the fungus Elsinoe Fawcett. The scab is caused by a fungus attacks the surfaces of the fruit and leaves. These symptoms occur on the leaves, twigs, and fruits. The scab pustules are a mixture of fungal and host tissue. These diseases come from fruit will not develop normally and the tree will undergo early leaf drop. The infected fruits become hard and often drop prematurely.

Management

i) Removed the infected leaves and fruits.

ii) Spray Ziram 27SC @25% or Copper Oxychloride @ 0.35 or Dithane M-45 @0.25%

Damping of Seedlings (Lemon diseases identification)

Damping of the seedling is the very common trouble in the lemon crops. The main fungus attacks the seedlings at or near the surface of the taproot. The fungus lives in the soil and them primarily a problem in seedbeds.

Management

i) Collected diseases free plant.

ii) Spray neem cake solution @50g/litre of water.

iii) Drenching of soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture is very effective.

Ring Sport

This virus appears as yellow rings on mature leaves. This ring varies one to leaf with variable diameter. The affected trees suffer significant loss of fruit yield and later decline with dieback symptoms. The virus is transmitted through the infected bud wood.

Management

i) Use resident variety.

ii) Use virus free tree.

Gummosis (Lemon diseases identification)

This is also known as Phytophthora gummosis. The main symptom as water soaked large patches on the basal portions of the stem in the ground level. The symptom can be seen in fruit. These patches turn brown and the bark may split through which a gum stem, near the ground level. Dark water-soaked areas are formed in the bark and a sour smell may emanate from them in wet condition. At the last stage the dead bark dries, shrinks and cracks and patches may fall off leaving an open canker.

Management

i) Decorticate and disinfect wounds on trunk either with.

ii) Disinfectant solution and cover the wound with.

iii) Apply Bordeaux mixture 1%

iv) Always keep the orchard clean. Prune unproductive dry and disease/ insect infected branches.

We also discuss how to growing a lemon tree indoor plant.

Bottle gourd diseases management | Control method

Cucurbitaceae family Bottle gourd is a very oldest and very famous vegetable. It is also known other name like as Winter melon, Fuzzy melon, and White gourd. How to cultivated Bottle gourd and Bottle gourd pest control method we already discuss pleases study this article. So let start Bottle gourd diseases management.

Alternaria leaves blight

Alternaria leve blight

Alternaria leaves blight caused by leakage fungus Alternaria cucumerina. This diseases mostly damage Watermelon, pumpkin, Bottle gourd and squash. This disease is a small, yellow-brown spot with a yellow or green hello which appeared on the first oldest leaves. These streaks cause internal degradation of the fruit and primarily infects the infected fruits. The damaged plants will become weak, produce fewer fruits, and the fruit will be ineffective.

Management

i) Use drip irrigation to reduce the spread of bacteria by overhead irrigation

ii) Use resistant varieties.

iii) Don doesn’t work in plants when wet.

iv) If you take the diseases to the primary stage, it can be effective in reducing its expansion it becomes widespread and severe.

v) Removed and destroy infected plants at the end of the season in small gardens.

Bottle gourd diseases management | Bottle gourd diseases control

Cercospora leaf spot

Cercospora is the common disease on all cucurbits vegetable. This disease is usually found in the leaves, but if the environment is suitable, the symptoms may also be petioles and pillars. There are irregular spots which watch bottle gourd vegetable.

Management

i) At first, any diseases plant should be removed and destroyed.

ii) Crop debris should be removed after harvest

iii) Two-three years later crop rotations.

Downey Mildew

Downey Mildew bottle gourd

Downey Mildew is the serious diseases of the bottle gourd vegetable. It caused by the fungus as water mold pseudoperonspora cubensis. Once established in one area, this disease can spread, rapidly, resulting in the decrease of fruit quality and yield. Early symptoms of the small chlorotic spot on the surface of the upper surface, often the old developing crown leaves first.

Management

i) Avoided overhead irrigation

ii) Select fields for crop cultivation and management crops and reduce moisture leaves for the developing of air circulation.

iii) Spray fungus mixture of 16 parts Dithane M-45 and parts Karathane 25WP per kg in 800-900 liters of water. And make a solution Dithane M-45 and 2gm Karathane 25WP per 5 liters of water.

Powdery Mildew for Bottle gourd diseases management

Typical light grey to white powder spots appear on the upper surface and later on the under the surface of the leaf blades, sheaths, and bracts. Infected plants become stunted due to the reduction in size and number of leaves, and produce poor yield. There are numerous small rounds of affected areas, and clithiusasia is formed in the dark.

Management

i) The Plant is sites with good air circulation and sun exposure.

ii) Choose planting sites with good air movement and free of shade.

iii) Aureofungin 50 ppm also give good control of the diseases.

iv) Spray Carbendazim or Tridemoph 0.1%

Scab (Bottle gourd diseases management)

This fungus can attack any aboveground portions of the plant including leaves and petioles. Angular brown lesions on leaves with small veins and lesions may also present on petioles in stems and fruits.

Management 

Treat seed tubers with Agallol -3 @ 500gm/100 liters of water for 10 minutes before sowings

Bottle gourd pest control | Pest management

We called Bottle gourd as a White-flowered gourd or Calabash gourd. The Botanical name is Lagenaria Siceraia and family is Cucurbitaceae. Bottle gourd is the oldest cultivated plant. If you bottle gourd cultivated then facing many problems so we discuss this article how to Bottle gourd pest control.

Fruit fly

The adults are reddish dark brown fly with hyaline wings and yellow legs with dark rust red, and black patterns on the thorax, The maggots are legless and measure 8-9mm long when full grown in length and are yellow and opaque. The fruits develop brown rotten patches. Infected fruits become unmarketable as they begin to rot and drop down.

Management

i) Plough round the trees during winter to expose and skill pupae.

ii) Apply Carbaryl 10% per pit before sowing of seeds.

iii) After harvest dip the fruits with 5% sodium chloride solution for 60 minutes to kill the eggs.

Bottle gourd pest control | Pest Management

Pumpkin Beetle

Pumpkin Beetle

Pumpkin beetle is the most important pest of all cucurbitaceous crops. This pest damage only adult insects, which feed voraciously on the leaves, flowers, and adults. The grabs put the soil and feed on roots and stem of the bottle gourd plant.  Then the fruit touching the ground are destroyed by the larvae which penetrate into the fruit.

Management

i) At first soil treatment with BHC, DDT, Neem Kernel or Dieldrin.

ii) Spray mixture of lime and calcium arsenate or Parathion 0.025% or Phosphamidon 0.04%.

Aphids

This pest damage any Cucurbitaceae crop. High humidity season this pest is favorable to fast quality. This pest mainly monitored on the below leaves. Ants carry the aphids from one plant to another plant.

Management

i) Spray Oxydemeton methyl 25EC @ 1.25 liters or Dimethoate 30EC @ 1.70 liters in 1200 liters of water/ha.

Epilachna Beetle (Bottle gourd pest control)

Epilachna Beetle

The yellowish colored grabs and an adult are attacks on the leaves and tender plant parts, then the leaves completely veinskeletonizedd to a network.

 Management

i) Egg, Grubs, and adults both are removed and destroyed.

ii) Spray Carbaryl @ 20-25 gm per 15 liters of water.

Brinjal Pest Control | Eggplant pest control

Eggplant and Brinjal both are same. If you cultivated Brinjal then facing many problems so today fully discuss How to Brinjal Pest Control or Eggplant pest control.

Leaf Eating Beetle

The yellow color grubs and adults eating leaves seriously. The reason for serious damage to the soft part of the plants and often appear in the number. The beetle chew holes in plant leave the are around 1/8 inches diameter. As the result, the leaves are completely skeletonized.

Management

i) Collect then destroyed infected leaves.

ii) Fully watch grabs, adult and eggs destroyed.

iii) Spray Carbaryl @ 3-4gm/liter of water or Malathion 2ml/liter of water.

Brinjal Pest Control | Eggplant Pest Control

Eggplant Stem borer

The full-grown caterpillar is creamy white and has a few bristly hastily and their body tapers posteriorly. Presence of brown colored egg mass near leaf tip. The caterpillar feeds exclusively in the main stem and has never been observed to bore into the fruits. The Plant could be easily pulled by hand.

Management

i) Remove and destroyed affect plant.

ii) Spray Neem seed kernel extract controls stem borer.

iii) Spray Malathion 50EC @500ml or Dichlorvos 100EC @ 300ml in 300 liter of water /ha.

Fruit and Shoot borer

The plant is effected in the first phase of the crop and the fruiting continues to the stage. The yield and fruit yield leading to a severe reduction in yield due to a serious damage. The crop loss begins soon after planting and the fruit continues till harvesting. Small pink larvae of pest initially bore into the terminal shoots resulting in withering and drying of the shoot. Larvae bore the fruits and make them unfit for consumption.

Management

i) In the same piece of land, the continuous harvest of eggplant should be left over.

ii) All the oppressed flower buds, the proper collection of the crop during harvest.

iii) Continuous cultivated of eggplant supports pest infestation

iv) Spray Cypermethrin 0.5ml or Carbaryl 0.1%.

Jassids (Brinjal Pest Control)

It is a polyphagous pest and it serious damage by sucking the leaf.  Nymphs and adult pest sap from the surface and can be found on top of margarine. They are transmitted like macro plasma disease, such as mosaic. As the result sets are adversely affected due to losses.

Management

i) Avoid overuse of Nitrogen fertilizers.

ii) Use yellow sticky traps to monitor sucking pest activity.

iii) Spray Malathion @ 0.1% or Dichlorvos @ 0.05%.

Mealy Bug

The Nymphs and adult are sucks from the leaves, tender shoots, and the fruit. Soup to their pale and week plant to suck. The harmful plants wilt and dry. Lots of insects during the rainy season.

Management

Spray Malathion @ 625ml or Chlorpyriphos 0.05% in 300 liter of water/ha.

Eggplant leafroller (Brinjal Pest Control)

The moths are of medium size having bright orange-yellow color and bear a number of black dots on the wings. Moths are medium size having wing expanses 25-35mm. They are always found in the leaf fold and damage the folded leaves wither and dry up. The larvae also fold the leaves and feed on the green matter while remaining inside the fold and thus lead a secret life.

Management

i) A direct method of removing and destroying the leaves rolled along with worms inside the damaged shoot.

ii) Removed and destroyed the folded leaves along with caterpillar inside.

iii) Spray Endosulfan 35 EC in 300 liters f water.

Mites

These are minute, polyphagous pests found in large colonies on the underside of the leaves covered with fine silky webs. They are described in expanded-oval, microscopic and deep orange colors. Both nymphs and adult sap between the veins undersurface of leaves and produce soft profuse webbing. It gives a chlorotic a[[earance and beats the leaves and flower prematurely.

Management

i) Infected plant reduced in the field. The infestation subsides after sharp showers.

ii) Spray Dimethoate 30 EC or Oxydemeton Methyl 25EC in 300 liters of water/ha.

Root Knot Nematodes (Brinjal Pest Control)

Root-knot nematode damage is more harmful than saplings than older plants. Affected plant galls development on damage plant roots. The plants stunted and should the leaves chlorotic signs. Fruiting is adversely affected.

Management

i) Crop rotation

ii) Apply DD-100 @ 230liters/ha or Nemagone-60 @34liters/ha

More Study

Eggplant Planting guide 

How to control Brinjal Plant diseases

Brinjal Plant diseases | Eggplant diseases Identification

At first, told you Brinjal and Eggplant are same. If you cultivated Brinjal or Eggplant then facing many problems so I fully discuss how to control Brinjal Plant diseases or Eggplant diseases identification.

Sclerotinia Blight

Scierotinia

The symptoms are mainly on cereals and branches. Sings are changed in host species, but there are many similarities in the mail, Initially. The water poured with an irregular shape appear in the fruit, leaves or petiole. The entire plant may be in form of infection in the stem. In addition to eggplants, it also contributes to tomato, potato, peas, chicken, and spices.When the fruits are attacked, rotating in meat and tissue, the syringe is seen. The rash rises in the form of sparks of the soil or plant destruction.

Management

i) Collect and harvest all the debris from the plant.

ii) In the deep summer, the farmer ploughing should be done.

iii) Spray Bavistin or Ziram or Ferban has been reported to give some relief.

Brinjal Plant diseases | Eggplant diseases identification

Damping off

damping off

Damping off is a seedbed that is mostly seeded for plants or even when it is directly seeded.  The diseases are a Nursery bead disease. High soil, humidity, and moderate temperature, especially during monsoon, develops with high humidity. The fungus attack In the two phases as

Pre-emergence damping-off –  The small seedling dies before they emerge out of the soil surface.

Post-emergence damping off- After the exit the soil, the movement of seed in the infected seed is stopped at any time.

Management

i) Cultural practices such as thin seeds, blight soil use, best irrigation of nursery beds, use of perfume fertilizers removed the diseases.

ii) Treat seed with Caption or Thiram or Agrosan @2.5gm/kg of seed before sowing.

Alternaria Leaf spot

Alternaria

The disease touches the characteristic leaves with centralized ring and brown with irregular spots are produced on the leaves. Several spots may coalesce to form bigger necrotic patches. The symptom of the affected fruit cause large deep-seated spots. Infected fruits become yellow and drop prematurely.

Management

i) Remove and destroy the affected plant.

ii) Spray Bavistin @ 0.1% in the affected parts.

Verticillium Wilt (Brinjal Plant diseases)

This disease attack the young plants as well as the mature plants. The main symptoms of infection on roots and stems. Infected plants stunted in growth and do not come flower and fruit. Infected leaf displays the presence of yellow stains of scarring scattered on thin laminates. The roots of damaged plants become prolonged a characteristic dark brown demonstration if Xylem ships are observed.

Management

i) Use resistant cultivars

ii) Crop rotation with potato, lady finger, tomato should be avoided.

iii) Soil application 0.1% Benlate gives effective control of the diseases.

Mosaic (Brinjal Plant diseases)

The symptom range from mild mosaic to serious stab, etching, and necrosis of the leaf tissues.  The disease is mosaic mottling of the leaves and stunting of plants. Infected plants bear a smaller number of flowers and fruit and fruit size are small

Management

i) In the nursery stage controlled Aphid.

ii) Spray Phosphamidon @ 0.05% per 10 days in the interval starting from 15-20 days.

iii) Grow resistant variety

Bacterial Wilt

The bacterial wilt causes serious problems in the cultivation of eggplants. The symptom is yellowing, stunting, and Muktakeshi, foliage followed by the collapse of the entire plant. Vascular stem becomes brown and lower leaves drop before wilting.

Management

i) Grow resistant variety

ii) Crop rotation with Potato, ladies finger, the brinjal should be avoided

Little leaf (Brinjal Plant diseases)

This is the serious diseases of eggplant. This disease is transmitted by the leafhopper. Ths leaf is early stage is light yellow color. This diseases affected the generally large number of branches, roots and leave smaller than healthy plants.The flower mainly distorted to sterilize the plant. Infected plant fruit is very heard.

Management

i) In the initial stage, patients suffering from diseases.

ii) Sowing time can be adjusted to avoid the beet leafhoppers main plants.

iii) Spray Malathion @ 2ml/ liter of water.

More Information

How to Eggplant cultivation.

How to Eggplant Pest control

Soybean plant diseases | Soybean diseases and there control

If you cultivated soybean then facing many problems, so today discuss how to control Soybean plant diseases.

Downy Mildew

Downy Mildew of soybean

It appears as yellow to white patches on the upper surfaces of old leaves. In severe outbreaks entire leaflets are discolored and which will become necrotic spots. Severely infected leaves fall prematurely. A grayish mold like growth is formed on the undersurface of the lesions.

Management

i) Grow resistant varieties

ii) Removed and destroy serious attack plants.

iii) Removed any weeds to improve air circulation.

Soybean plant diseases | Soybean diseases and there control

Brown stem root

Brown stem root is the major diseases of soybean. This disease is a  continuation of seedling blight, Spots various sizes occur on the stem or near the soil level and on the roots. During the summer season, soybean cultivar and types of the pathogen, leaves may develop brown and yellow discoloration between the veins.

Management

Infested soil should not be sown with soybean three to four years

Soybean Mosaic

Mosaic of soybean

This the most damaging symptoms of soybean. It depends on many variety virus strain, age, and environment of the plant infection.  Molting appears as light and dark green patches on individual leaves. Dark green enations may develop along the main veins. The petioles and internodes are shortened with green infections. Seed set is delayed and reduced greatly. Unifoliate leaves on seedling from infected seeds are chlorotic and roll while trifoliate leaves and reduced in size and show mottling and rugosity.

Management

i) Large size seed should not be cultivated

ii) Use pathogen-free seed

iii) Seed and soil treatment.

iv) The value of insecticides to reduce Soybean Mosaic virus  via controlling aphids uncertain

Soybean Rust (Soybean plant diseases)

Soybean rust is one of the most important diseases of possible soybean. It can spread and thin the leaves of the soybean tree. Tenor reddish-brown wounds first develop the bottom of the leaves. Small pustules develop pin the germ, which breaks open and releases masses of tan spots. Early defoliation and reduction in the number of pods, seeds, and seed weight results due to infection of rust.

Management

i) Grown residence variety.

ii) Spray Defoliation or Dithane M-45 @2.5kg per hain 100 liters of water.

 Damping off

Soybean damping off

Damping off, seed and plant deaths can be a serious disease, and there is great economic importance for soybean production. Germination seeds are very often covered with fungal growth. Infection and loss before the infection are common but difficult to detect. Other causes of disease can cause this problem, so it is important to closely monitor the determination of reason. This disease spreads through irrigation water.

Management

i) Plant varieties with partial resistance to Rhizoctonia.

ii) Seed treatment is very important so you can use Ziram or Caption @ 2.5gm/kg of seed

iii) Plant high-quality seeds combined with phensedyl seed treatment with effect for genuine fungus.

iv) Improve drainage facility in the field.

Brown Spot (Soybean plant diseases)

Brown spots may be caused by fungusSeptoria and also called septoria leaf spot. Small brown spots of varying sizes from pinpoint to about 5mm diameter appear on the leaves, and the leaves are yellow and prematurely shed in severe attacks. Which his often related to yellow patches, on one side of the page, more intensified than the other. There are indefinite margins of stem and pod wounds and are dark in the range in size from flecks to larges.

Management

i) Seed treatment with Zineb or Thiram @2.5gm/kg of seeds.

ii) Spray any copper fungicide @2.-3gm/liter of water.

iii) Planting seed should be diseases free seeds.

Root rot

Root rot of soybean

In many places where soybean is grown, the to cause of futithotha and stem ratch is a significant disease. It is an excellent saprophyte of different plant residues and survives for several years as saprophytic mycelium or sclerotia in absence of soybean. This diseases affected then plant should die. The bark of the primary and secondary roots and stems are shredded and show a large number of sclerotia. After severe rainfall, The symptom is usually seen after one to two weeks, and soil most commonly is silence.

Management

i) The Infected plant should be removed and destroyed.

ii) Seed treatment with Brassicol or Benlate @ 2gm/kg of seed.

iii) Soil treatment with Brassicol @2025kg/ha

iv) Spray Dithane Z-78 @200gm/100 liters of water.

Study: Soybean plant information

Study: Soybean insect pest management

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