Chilli is one of the most valuable crops of India. The crop is grown largely for its fruits all over the India. It is used for vegetable, spIces, condiments, sauces and pickle. Dry chilli are used for curry powder. Red colour chilli is due to copsonthin. These article for chilli cultivation guide.
Chilli cultivation Information
Botanical name – Capsicum annum L and Capsicum frutesence L
Family in Solanaceous.
Chilli production countries
Major chilli growing countries are India, chaina, Ethiopia, Myanmar, Mexico, Peru, Vietnam, Pakistan, Ghana and Bangladesh. India tops among all of these in expariting chillies.
The chilli is a plant of tropical and subtropical regiora. It grows well in worm and humid climate and a temperature of 20-250 C. Temperature below 150C will result in reduce crop yield. This crop requires an annual rainfall of 25 to 30 inches. Excesive rainfall of flooding will damage the crop.
Chilli can be grown in wide range of soil. However the sandy- loam, clay loam and loam soil should rain in organic matter, well drained and well aerted. The soil PH value for best growth of chilli is 5.5 to 6.8. Avoid acidic soils as these are not suitable for chilli cultivation.
Season of sowing
January to February
June to July
September to October
Seed rate depends on cultivar and soil type. Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds and cover with sand. However, on an average, 1 to ½ kg seeds required to cover the one hectore land. Apply carbofuran 3G at 10gm/sq. meter at sowing.
Chilli can be growing in all type of soft but the sanday-loam, clay loam and loam soils are best suited forted, the soil must be well drained and well aerated.
The land is preparation by given 2-3 ploughings and cold crushing after each ploughing. Compost or FYM @150-200 quintals should be spread and mixed well soil at least 15-20 days before sowing. At the last ploughing Aldrin or heftaf 10-15kg per acre should be applied to the soil to protect the crop from white ants and other soil pest.
Varieties of Chilli
Pusa Sadabahar, PusaJwala and plant c-1 are the chilli varieties for cultivation in uttarakhand. Green cayenne, yellow cayenne, Red Cayenne, Green Ball, Red Ball, there of many important varieties.
Fresh chili seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds. The nursery beds is usually raised from ground level and is prepared by thorough mixing with compost and sand. Seeds treated with Trichoderma are sown and covered thinly using sand. The seeds germination time is 5-7 days. About 40-45 days oil seedlings are trans planted in the actual field.
40-45 days old seedlings are used for transplantation. In some place, 60cm X 30cm or 45cm X 30cm or 30cm X 30cm spacing is also followed. However a spacing of 60cm X 30cm with a plant population of about 22,200 seedlings per acre or 45cm X 45cm with a plant population of 19,750 per acre are considered optimum.
Driect sowing seed rate is 2.5-3.0 kg per acre. After 30-40 days of sowing thinning and gap filling is done on a cloudy day.
Chilli is grown both as rain fed and irrigated crop. First irrigation is given after the transplanting and subsequent irrigation are given 5-7days interval depending on weather and conditions of soil during 4pm, it is an indication that irrigation is needed. However, under irrigated condition care should be taken to avoid using water contaminated with fertilizer, pesticide and fungicides, stagnation water should not be allowed in nursery beds and fields in order to avoid fungal infection.
Manures and Fertilizer
Chilli farming 10-11 tons/ha FYM or Compost is applied in fast time land preparation. ½ kg(50) N 50kg P, 50kg K should be applied after seed transplanting. Then 30 days goes 25 kg N mixed the soil, then 15-18 days goes 25kg N mixed the soil.
100kg N, 50kg P , 50kg K should be applied per hectare.
Chilli cultivation is highly perisable in nature. Usually is taken about 60-65 days after flowering for fruits to fully ripen. Harvesting of chilli crop depends on the purpose and market demand. Chillies which are used for vegetable purpose are generally harvested white they are still green but full grown. Chilli are harvested at red stage for caning purpose. Chillies under for drying are harvested at full ripe-stage which can be turned into chilli powder.
The yield of chilli crops depends on the cultivar, soil type, irrigation and crop management practices.