Chilli cultivation guide information Guide

Chilli plant cultivation– Chilli is one of the most valuable crops of India. The crop is grown largely for its fruits all over the India. It is used for vegetable, spIces, condiments, sauces  and pickle. Dry chilli are used for curry powder. Red colour chilli is due to copsonthin. These article for chilli plant cultivation guide.

Chilli plant cultivation Information

Botanical name –  Capsicum annum L and Capsicum frutesence L

Family in Solanaceous.

Chilli production countries

Major chilli growing countries are India, chaina, Ethiopia, Myanmar, Mexico, Peru, Vietnam, Pakistan, Ghana and Bangladesh. India tops among all of these in expariting chillies.

Climate for chili cultivation

The chilli is a plant of tropical and subtropical regiora. It grows well in worm and humid climate and a temperature of 20-250 C. Temperature below 150C will result in reduce crop yield. This crop requires an annual rainfall of 25 to 30 inches. Excesive rainfall of flooding will damage the crop.

Soil for chilli plant cultivation

Chilli can be grown in wide range of soil. However the sandy- loam, clay loam and loam soil should rain in organic matter, well drained and well aerted. The soil PH value for best growth of chilli is 5.5 to 6.8. Avoid acidic soils as these are not suitable for chilli cultivation.

chilli farming
chilli farming

Season of sowing

  1. January to February
  2. June to July
  3. September to October

Seed treatment

Seed rate depends on cultivar and soil type. Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds and cover with sand. However, on an average, 1 to ½ kg seeds required to cover the one hectore land. Apply carbofuran 3G at 10gm/sq. meter at sowing.

Land preparation

Chilli can be growing in all type of soft but the sanday-loam, clay loam and loam soils are best suited forted, the soil must be well drained and well aerated.

The land is preparation by given 2-3 ploughings and cold crushing after each ploughing. Compost or FYM @150-200 quintals should be spread and mixed well soil at least 15-20 days before sowing. At the last ploughing Aldrin or heftaf 10-15kg per acre should be applied to the soil to protect the crop from white ants and other soil pest.

Varieties of Chilli

Pusa Sadabahar, PusaJwala and plant c-1 are the chilli varieties for cultivation in uttarakhand. Green cayenne, yellow cayenne, Red Cayenne, Green Ball, Red Ball, there of many important varieties.

Nursery Raising

Fresh chili seeds are sown in well prepared nursery beds. The nursery beds is usually raised from ground level and is prepared by thorough mixing with compost and sand. Seeds treated with Trichoderma are sown and covered thinly using sand. The seeds germination time is 5-7 days. About 40-45 days oil seedlings are trans planted in the actual field.

Spacing for chilli farming

40-45 days old seedlings are used for transplantation. In some place, 60cm X 30cm or 45cm X 30cm or 30cm X 30cm spacing is also followed. However a spacing of 60cm X 30cm with a plant population of about 22,200 seedlings per acre or 45cm X 45cm with a plant population of 19,750 per acre are considered optimum.

Driect sowing seed rate is 2.5-3.0 kg per acre. After 30-40 days of sowing thinning and gap filling is done on a cloudy day.

 Irrigation

Chilli is grown both as rain fed and irrigated crop. First irrigation is given after the transplanting and subsequent irrigation are given 5-7days interval depending on weather and conditions of soil during 4pm, it is an indication that irrigation is needed. However, under irrigated condition care should be taken to avoid using water contaminated with fertilizer, pesticide and fungicides, stagnation water should not be allowed in nursery beds and fields in order to avoid fungal infection.

Manures and Fertilizer for chilli plant cultivation

Chilli farming 10-11 tons/ha FYM or Compost is applied in fast time land preparation. ½ kg(50) N 50kg P, 50kg K should be applied after seed transplanting. Then 30 days goes 25 kg N mixed the soil, then 15-18 days goes 25kg  N mixed the soil.

100kg N, 50kg P , 50kg K should be applied per hectare.

Harvest

chilli plant cultivation is highly perisable in nature. Usually is taken about 60-65 days after flowering for fruits to fully ripen. Harvesting of chilli crop depends on the purpose and market demand. Chillies which are used for vegetable purpose are generally harvested white they are still green but full grown. Chilli are harvested at red stage for caning purpose. Chillies under for drying are harvested at full ripe-stage which can be turned into chilli powder.

Yield chilli

The yield of chilli crops depends on the cultivar, soil type, irrigation and crop management practices.

Dry chilli yield 2-3 tonnes/ha.

Green chilli yield 10-15 tonnes/ha

More study chilli plant cultivation then watch this video

Chilli pest and there management study click here

Chilli Disease and there Management study click here

 

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