Manures are plant and animal wastes that are used as source of plant nutrients. They release nutrients after there decomposition. The art of collecting and using wastes from animal, human and vegetable source for improving crop productivity is as old as agriculture. Farm yard Manure with low nutrients content per unit quality have longer residual effect besides improving soil physical properties compared to fertilizer with high nutrient content major sources of manures are-
Farm yard manure Important for cultivation
i) Basically using cow dung, cow urine.
ii) Waste straw and other dairy wastes.
iii) Green manuring crops and green leaf manuring material.
iv) Crop wastes- sugarcane trash.
v) Weather hyacinth, weeds and take sit.
vi) Poultry sitter, dropping of sheep and goat.
Advantage of Farm yard manure(FYM)
i) FYM provides all the nutrients that are required by plants but in limited quantities.
ii) It improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
iii)It improves both the structure and texture of the soil.
iv) It increases the water holding capacity of the soil.
v) Due to increase in the biological activity, the nutrients in the lower depths are made available to the plants.
vi) It helps in maintaining C:N ratio in the soil and also increase the fertility and productivity of the soil.
Preparation of Farm yard manure
The manure pit should be about 0.9 meter deep 1.8-2.4 meter wide and of any suitable length. The length of the manure pit should be about 5 miters of the farmer has 2 pairs of animals. The manure pit should be provided with roof t orotedct the FYM from the hot sun and heavy rain. The mixture of cow dung and urine soaked litter should be directly taken to the manure pit and evenly spread unif armly at the bottom.
It necessary water should be uniformlly added to it. The daily collection of the mixture of cow dung and urine soaked litter is continuing till the manure heap rises about 30cms above the ground. It is taken watered thoroughly and mud plastered.
The farm yard manure is ready in about six months. In India, Farm yard Manure contains (Pereentages on dry matter) about 0.32 per cent nitrogen, 0.05 per cent phosphoric (P), 0.25% Potassium (K), 1.120% calcium (Ca) and 0.33% magnesium(Mg).
Use of Farm Yard Manure
Partially rotten farm yard manure should generally be applied 3-4 weeks before sowing the crops. This farm yard manure (FYM) will decompose in moist soil to improve the soil structure and release the nutrients contained in it, in the soluble form for growth of the crops.
If it applied too long before sowing the crop the nutrients are lost by leaching by rain water. Well-rotted farm yard manure should be thoroughly warked into the soil just before the crop is sown.
The application of farm yard manure fertilizers to young vegetable and fruit plants have given the best results. As farm yard manure contains a relatively low amount of phosphorus, it should be used in conjunction with single super. Phosphate as a basal done and nitrogenous fertilizers should be used as a top dressing.