Rice cultivation methods | Paddy cultivation methods

Rice cultivation methods– Paddy/rice is a food of more than 60 percent of the world production, about 90 percent of the paddy in the world is produced and consumed in Asia. Rice cultivation/Pady cultivation more than 44.6 million hectors. Paddy botanical name is Oryza sativa, the family is Graminae.

 Rice cultivation methods in India

  LLand, and Isolation Distance (ID)
        Land to be used paddy seed production shall be free of volunteer plants and the soil preferable clay loam.  Paddy is strictly a self-pollinated crop. The extent of natural cross-pollination varies from 0 to 0.68 percent. For pure seed production, the seed fields must be isolated at least by 3 meters from other fields of paddy, for F and C seed production.
2.      2. Sowing seasons and seed rat(rice cultivation methods)
  • ·         Nursery sowing; 25th May – 16th June.
  • ·         Sowing of late maturing varieties in the nursery should be done from 25th May to 10th June and that of early duration varieties from 10th to 25th June.
·         Adopt a seed rate of 60 kg for short duration 40 kg medium duration and 30 kg for long duration varieties per hours.
      3.A.   Seed standards(paddy cultivation methods)
(a) Minimum Pure seeds– percentage for F and C seed production is 90.0% and maximum inert matter 2.0%
(b) Maximum other crop seeds–  maximum 10 and 20 number of seeds per kg of F and C seeds respectively.
( c) Objectionable weed seed–  Maximum 10 and 20 seeds per kg of F and C seeds respectively.
(d) Germination Percentage– Minimum 85%for both F and C.
(e) Moisture content  Maximum 12% both for F and C. Maximum moisture content (M.C.) 8% for vapor proof pack.



   3.B)      Field Inspection       Minimum 2 number of inspections to be made from flowering to harvest. At the time of final inspection, maximum 0.05% and 0.20% (ear heads) are permitted for F and C seed production respectively.

4  seeds treatment(rice cultivation methods)
       The slurry seed treatments with carbendazim and tricyclazole (2g/kg) increase the seed germination, seedling height, dry matter production, and vigor index compared to other fungicides.
5. Nursery management-
       Prepare raised beds measuring 6*1.5 m wide channels all around to facility drainage (About 50-60 beds of size 6.0*1.5 m are sufficient for raising seedling to transplant 1 hectare). Apply 450g superphosphate per bed at the time of final preparation of the beds and mix them thoroughly with the soil. The required seed rate is 400-600 g/bed. Application of DAP at 40 kg/cent nursery area results in increased seedling height, a number of leaves per seedling, shoot dry weight, root length, and uptake of NPK.
6.Transplanting(rice cultivation methods)
                    Transplant 2-3 seedling per hill at 2-3 cm deep. The seedling should be appropriate age at the time of Transplanting
7. Spacing-
        Usually, a row spacing of 30 cm with a seeding depth of 5 cm is adopted which depends on the duration of varieties.
Short duration -12.5*30 cm, Medium duration 20*30 cm, Long duration 20*15 cm.
8.  Roguing-
         Roguing should be done at followed three stage Viz, Vegetative, flowering and maturity to remove off types.
  • ·         Vegetative stage- plants showing abnormal height and dwarf, early flowering plants
  • ·         Flowering stage- Late flowering plants and plants producing ill-filled grains, wild rice plants, plants infected with stem borers, diseased and plants with (tungro virus and false smut).
  • ·         Maturing stage- Which are not confirmed for the seed crop grain character i.e. slender, bold grain characters etc.

9. Manures and fertilizer(rice cultivation methods)

  • ·         Apply 12.5 tonnes of FYM or compost/ha.
  • ·         6.25 tonnes of Sesbania rostrata green manure is incorporated to have better fertility status in the field.
  • ·         For all the rice duration varieties, NPK at the rate of 100:50:50 Kg per hectare.
  • ·         One-fourth of N and all of the K fertilizers are applied just before the final puddling.
  • ·         The remaining quantity of N is applied in two stages. One half at the time of mid tillering and another half at the panicle initiation stage, a foliar spray of 2 percent urea solution at the active tillering stage helps to boost paddy seed yield.
  • ·         Application of DAP 2% as a foliar spray to the seed crop at 6.5th and 80th days after sowing has increased the seed yield. Spraying of Succinic acid (0.1%) thrice during crop growth stages namely, panicle initiation, boot leaf, and 50 percent flowering, result in increased seed yield and seed quality parameters.
10. Irrigation 
  • ·         Irrigate the field 18-24 hours after sowing
  • ·         Allow enough water to saturate the soil from the 3thto 4th day onwards.
  • ·         Maintain 2.5 cm depth of water
  • ·         Continuous submergence to 5 cm in the field records the maximum numbers of productive tillers/m2 and number of filled seeds/ panicles.

what is a pesticide or how to use pesticide

11. Harvesting and threshing-
       After harvest rice seed must be dried to 11-13% moisture content for safer storage. Seed crop must be harvested 28, 31 and 35 days after flowering for the short medium and long duration varieties respectively. At harvest maturity stage, 90 percent of the population attains straw color and seed moisture content reduced to 17 to 20 percent.
1   12.    Yield(paddy cultivation methods)

                2.5  to 3 tones/h.

13. Grading and upgrading(rice cultivation methods)

                 A sieves size of 1.3 mm*19mm, oblong perforation for fine seed varieties and sieve having 1.5 mm x 19 mm oblong perforation for medium and loss coarse seed varieties and 1.8 mm x 19 mm for coarse seeded varieties should be used. Upgrading the seeds on weight basis before sowing by density grading using common salt solution having a specific gravity 1.13 and collect only the heavy seeds that sink at the bottom and rinse with water.
14. Treatment for Breaking Dormancy-
                Socking in Thiorea for 20-24 hours can break dormancy and produce germination immediately.
More study

What is fumigation/fumigation full study

What is fumigation and there full study

Hydrogen cyanide or Hydrocyanic acid(HCN)
                    Trade name : Cynogas; Formulation : Dust; Dose : 10-16 g NaCH 98% pure with 20-30 ml H2SO4 and 40-60 ml water/m3 for general fumigation. Use : It is useful for disinfection of plant material intended for propagation. The plants to be fumigated should not be watered for some hours prior to fumigation. The plants to be  should not be watered for some hours prior to fumigation. Gas masks should be used at the time of fumigation.
Carbon bisulphide
         Also known as carbon disulphide (CS2) ; Formulation : Liquid from : Dose : 160g/m3of space or 3.5-5.0 litres/1000kg grain for 36-72 hours ; Use : Effective against stored grain pests, wood borers, pests of clothes, bots and intestinal larvae in animals (when administered in the form of capsules), soil insects and nematodes.
EDCT Mixture (kiloptera), CH2Cl-CH2Cl 
                   Formulation : Liquid (mixture of 3 parts of ethylene dichloride and 1 part of carbon tetrachloride). 500 ml , 1,5 litres tin containers ; Dose : 30-40 kg/100 m3 or 40 g/quintal ; Use : It is popularly used for the control of stored grain pests in the bag and bulk due to least hazard involved in its use. It its use. It can be safely used on kinds of cereals, millets and pulses except on oilseeds, spices and milled products. Required exposure period is 24-72 hours.
                   Also known as ethylene dibromide ; Formulation : Ampoules of 3,6,10,15, and 30ml ; Dose : 3ml/quintal or 22g(10cc)/m3;
             In small quantites  of food grains say upto 1 quintal, a 3 ml ampoule is broken gently just below the top surface of grain with a piece of brick, etc. The opening is immediately sealed. in larger quantities say upto 10 quintals of food grain the ampoules are to be distributed evenly  in the grain. Use : Effective against stored grain pests of all stages. It should not be used on oilseeds, moist grains and milled products.


Aluminium phosphide(ph3)
                Trade name : Phosphume , Delicia , Celphos, Quickphos, Phostoxin , etc. Formulation : Tablet or pellet form of 3 gms. Dose : 1 to 2 tablets/ ton or 140 tablets/100m3 wit hexposure period of minimum 3 days which may be extended up to 5 days ; Use : It is used for safe and effective control of all the common stored grain insects in a variety of stored commodities like cereals, millets, pulses, spices, oilseeds, milled products in bulk, bag stackes or in other packages. Formulation with ALP tablets should be done under perfect air-tight conditions In storage structures / godowns away from the living room and should be undertaken by trained personal only.
       ALP pellets are used extensively and conveniently for rat burrow fumigation against field rats. It is applied @ 2 tablets of 0.5 g weight per live rat burrow with the help of a simple rod like hollow applicator. The opening of the rat burrow should be plugged with mud to check the escaping gas.


Methyl bromide(Trichloronitromethane)
         Trade name : Embafume, Bedfume, Dowfume MC, Pestmaster ; Dose 1-2 lb/1000ft2
                      These chemicals are used for fumigation pot soil, seeds. They are applied by injector under the plastic seal as they are highly volatile.
            Formulation : Dust and WP ; Dose : 12g/m3 ; Use : As a soil fumigants it is used for controlling apple woolly aphid. It is recommended for the control of carpet beetles, cloth moths and dermestids damaging museum specimens. It is not used against any stored grain pest.
         Formulation : Ampoules of 11,22 and 30 ml for small  quantities of foodgrains stored in rural storage sructuries. Dose : 11 ml/quintal with an exposure period of 7 days. Method of application is same as EDB. Grains should be aerated before consumption. Use : It is a mixture of EDB. And carbon tetrachloride in the ratio of 1:8w/w. It has a greater penetration power and hence can be used for bagged storage under gas proof cover also. It is equally effective in rural storage structures.   

Applying MultiGuard Protect Nematicide

Nematicide application method

Nematicides .:-
                           Actually, nematodes is a type of pesticides use to help control nematodes (roundworms). These compounds are usually quite toxic to humans, so must be used with extreme care. Neem cake is generally used to obtain nematicide.
         Nematodes are little worms which atack crop plants, are too small to recognize without a microscope extra in enormous number in form fields. They damage roots and are a primary cause of reduced plant grouth and crop yeids but nematodes can be controlled by application of nematicides. Control results in incresed crop yieids.

  •     (Trichloronitromethane); Trade name : Larvacide, Picfume ; Dose : 12 oz/100 ft2.
  •  Methyl bromite(Bromomethane) ; Trade name : Embafume, Bedfume, Dowfume, MC, pestmaster ; Dose : 1-2lb/1000ft2.
          These two chemicals are used for fumigating pot soil, seed beds and plant beds for killing nematodes, fungi, bacteria, weed seeds and insects present in the soil. They are applied by injector under the plastic seal as they are highly volatile.
 ESB(1, 2-Dibromoethane) 
             Trade name : Dowfume W-40, Soilfume 40, Bromofume-40, Nemex 42 (Containing 41% EDB), Dowfume W-85, Bromofume 85, Nemex-85(Containing 85% EDB); Dose : 60 1/ha.
DD (1, 3-dichloropropene + 1,2-dichloropropene)
                     Trade name : D-D, Vidden D , Telone ; Dose : 250-500 l/ha.; Ues : These chemicals are highly effective nematicideas. They are applied  with injector by injecting small quantities into the soil to depth of 15 cm or deeper. DD is more effective in controlling cyst and lesion nematicides and root knot nematicides. EDB is more effective in controlling sting,  stunt  and potato rot nematicides.
NOTE. EDB should not be applied on bromine sensitive plants like onions, garlic, lily, amaryllis, etc.
DBCP(1, 2-Dibromo-3 choropropane)
                      Trade name : Nemagon, Fumazone ; Dose : 25-50 l/ha; Use : It is effective against root knot nematicides.  It can be used in irrigation water around the roots of living plants as they are well tolerated by most crop plants at the recommendad doses.
Parathion (O, O-diethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl)-phosphorothioate) ;  Trade name : Ekatox, Folidol, Thiophos ; Formulation  : 50 EC ; Use  : It is effective in controlling chrysanthemum foliar and bud nematicide (Aphelenchoides fragariae).
Dichlofenthion [O-(2,4-dichlorophenyl )
                    O, O-diethyl  phosphorothionate] ; Trade name : VC -13,  Hexanema  ; Formulation : 5% granules or 75% EC ; Dose : 8-12 Kg a.i./ha ; Use : It is used against root knot nematicides on the living plants.
Thionazin (O, O-diethyl-O-2-pyrazinyl phosphorothioate) 
                     Trade mane : Nemaphos, Zinophos ; Formulation : 10% granules ; ZDose : 4-8 kg a.i/ha.; Use : This is effective nematicide against sting nematode of maize at 1 kg a.i/ha as row treatment. It is also effective against root knot nematode of vegetables.
Fensulfothion [O,O-diethyl –O-P (Methyl sulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothioate] 
                      Trade names :  Terracur-p, Dasanit ; Formulation : 5-10 % granules ; Dose : 4-8  kg a.i./ha. Use: This is used against root nematodes of vegetables.
Phorate [O,O-diethyl S-(ethyl thio methyl) phosphorodithioate] 
                       Trade name : Thimat ; Formulation : 10% granules ; Dose : 4-8 a.i./ha ; use : Effective against stunt, root, lesion and nematicides on the ornamentals.
Ethoprop  [O,O-diethyl S, S-dipropyl phosphorothionate] 
                       Trade name : Macop ; Formulation : 10% granules ; Does : 4-8 kg a.i./ha Use : Effective against root knot nematicides on ornamentals.
Metham sodium (Sodium N-methyl dithiocarbamate)
                       Trade name : Vapam, Unifume, Vitafume, Sistan ; Formulation : 32-35% aqueous solution ; Dose  : 40 oz /100ft2, Use : It can be used as pre-plant treatment against control of insects, nematicides, fungi, weeds and other pests. It may be applied as a drench, in irrigation water or by injection into the soil.
Oxamyl[(Methyl  N,N-dimethyl-N-(Methyl carbamoyl) oxy) -1-thiooxamimidate]
                        Trade name : D-1410, Vydate ; Formulation : 40% EC ; Dose : 4-8 l a.i./ha ; Use : It is a systemic nematicide. It is mostly used against foliar nematodes. It can also be sprayed to the foliage to control the nematodes on the roots.
Methomyl[S-methyl N-(methyl carbamoyl) oxy- thioacetamidate] 
                        Trade name : Furadon ; Formulations : 90% WP ; Dose : 4-8 kg a.i./ha ; Use : It is a systemic nematicide.
Carbofuran(2,3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methyl carbamate)
                         Trade name : Furadan : Formulation : 3% granuls, 50% WP ; Dose : 4-8 kga.i./ha ; Use : It is effective against root knot of vegetables. It is a systemic nematicides.
Aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde O (methylcarbamoyl) oxime]
                       Trade name : Temik ; Formulation : 10% granules ; Dose : 2-4 kg a.i./ha ; Use : It is a systemic nematicide. Effective against root knot nematodes of vegetable and tobacco both in nursery and field.
Dazomet (Tetrahydro-3-5-dimethyl-1, 3, 5-thiadiazine-2-thione) 
                        Trade name : Basanid, Mylone and soil-kael ; Formulation : 50 and 85% WP granules, 2 and 5% dust; Dose : 2-5kga.i./ha ; Use : It is recommended for use on tobacco and ornamental plants. It is reported to be phytotoxic to growing plants.

Indian Britain , National Monsoon Mission study

Indian Britain , National Monsoon Mission
Union minister for science and Technology

Harshvarshon Earth science and Tsunami Indian Agroculture

Locknow-  Indian and British scientists are working on a project together under the National Monsoon Mission to provide preceise information about monsoon to farmers up to the block-level by 2019.
    “ under the National Monsoon Mission, precise information about the monsoon will be provided to farmers up to the block level by 2019,” union minister for science and Technology Harshvarshan said.
      The Minister, who also holds the portofolie of Earth science, said till now only 1.13 crore farmers out of 9.30 get information about monsoon which helps them in taking hecessary   steps to save their crop from rains.
         Through the mission, crops worth over Rs 42000 crore have been saved and now the aim is to extend the benefits to all the farmers in time to come,  he said. Under the mission, a British-make atmospheric research aircraft with sophisticated scientific instruments is being used.
          It is capable of flying at 5000 feat and is equipped to access we intricacies of weather , the minister said adding India well manufacture such an aircraft in next two years.
         The mission was stated on june 8 and it will continue till the end of this month, he said.
           Harshvardhan said the capability India has attained in predicting Tsunami is of international standards and it show such information with countries surrounded by seas ar haring vast coastline.
       Indian Agriculture is mostly dependent on rains which delivery nearly 70% of water needed for formars, reservoirs and aquifers.
      Good monsoon and high agriculture grouth are crucial to accelerate Indian GDP growth rate Economic Affairs secretary shaktikanta Das has said the country’s growth rate could climb to 8% in the current financial year  on the back of above normal monsoon.
       Farmlands across the country that are without any irrigation cover depend on the annual rains to  grow a number of crops.
       Planting and growing summer crops like paddy rice, soyabeans , cotton and pulseas depends largely on the rainfall received.

  Acaricide products list / Acaricide products name with trade name

Acaricide is pesticides that kill ticks and mites, closely related groups of invertebrates. Acaricide products list is one poet of a strategy for controlling ticks around homes and should be combined with measures to reduce tick habitats.

    An acaricide for tick control will include active ingredients like Dicofol, chorobenzilate, Fenson, chlorofenson, Tretradifar, Aramite, quinomeththionat. This acaricide products list chemicals are sometimes called acaricide insecticides, but ticks are arachnids, not insects, so this is not technically accurate. Some acaricides are available for homeowners to use, others can only be sold to licensed applicators, so you will need to hire a professional to apply them.

Acaricides are not allocated to specific groups based on their target site. Reviewed and re-issued periodically, the ICAR MoA classification list provides farmers, growers, advisors, extension staff, consultants and crop protection professionals with a guide to the selected of acaricides in resistance management of this type preserves the utility diversity of available acaricides.


 Acaricide products list with Trade name

                  1, 1-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-2, 2, 2-trichloroethanol (C16H14C3Cl2) is effective against phytophagous mites at all stage. Trade name : Kelthane  ; Formulations : 20 EC; 20% atomizing solution; dust ; LD50 for rats : oral 668-882 mg/kg; dermal 1870 mg/kg.


                             (Ethyl 4, 4-dichlorobenzilate) is very effective against mites infesting ornamental plants. Trade name : Akar ; Formulations : 25 WP and 25 EC ; LD50for rats : oral 2784-3880 mg tech./kg.
                 It is similar to chlorofenson and marketed as 20%WP and EC.
                         (4-Chlorophenyl 4-chlorobenzene sulphonate). It is toxic to eggs and immature stages of sap-feeding mites. Formulations : 50% WP.
                    (S-p-chlorophenyl  2, 4, 5 –trichlorophenly sulphone ). It is an excellent miticide for ornamental plants. Trade name : Tedion V-18 ; Formulations : 8% ingredient and smoke generations. LD50for rats : oral> 14700 mg/kg.
Aramite(2-chloroethyl 2-p-tert-Butyl phenoxy)- isopropal sulphite)-. 
                           It is an ideal acaricide as it controls the mites and is not toxic to man, animals, and predators, but it may cause irritation to the skin. Trade name : Aracide, Niagaramite ; Formulations : 3-4%dust, 15%WP,25%EC. LD50for rats : oral 3900mg/kg.
Quinomethionat (C10H6N2OS2)-(Acaricide products list)
                            It is effective against all stages of mites. It is also a fungicides action against powdery mildews.  Trade name : Morestan ; Formulation : WP ; LD50 for rats : oral 2500-3000 mg/kg ; dermal 500mg/kg.

miscellaneous pesticide with Action/miscellaneous pesticide trade name

Miscellaneous pesticide with trade name

                  The pyrroles are represented by the lead compound pirate which is a board spectrum insecticide/acarecide. Because of different mode action ( uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation), it is effective against insects such as diamondback moth and tobacco budworm which have developed resitance  to many insecticides.
                               Fibronil is a new phenylpyrazole insecticide that has excellent activity against many soil and foliar insects. This broad spectrum insecticide is highly active via ingestion, contact and systemic routes. Its unique action as a potent blocker of the GABA-gated chloride channel makes it effective against insects resistant to carbamate , organophosphate and pyretheroid.
Chloronicotinyl insecticides
                               I m, dacloprid (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl ]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine) is a contact and systemic insecticide with superior activity against sucking insects such as aphides, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. It has a novel mode of excellent systemic and good residual characteristics, it is especially appropriate for seed treatment and soil application.
                    It is an Miscellaneous pesticide –cum-acaricide having a mixture containing >80% avermectin B1aand <20% overmectin B16 . It has contact and stomach action, and is effective against mites and leaf miners on vegetables, citrus, etc.
Cartap hydrochloride
                                  [S,(S-2- dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis (thiocarbamate) hydrochloride ] or [1,3-bis carbomylthio]-2-(N, N-dimethyl-amino ) propane hydrochloride ]. It is systemic with stomach and contact action, and is effective against rice stem borer and leaf folder, sugarcane shoot borer, cabbage diamondback moth, etc.
                    It is natural source insecticides containing a mixture of two components derived from fermentation technology produced by saccharopolyspora spinosa, a species of actionomycete. It is active against American bollworm, leafhopper, aphid and whitefly on cotton at 75-100 g a.i/ha.
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