Bottle gourd pest control | Pest management

We called Bottle gourd as a White-flowered gourd or Calabash gourd. The Botanical name is Lagenaria Siceraia and family is Cucurbitaceae. Bottle gourd is the oldest cultivated plant. If you bottle gourd cultivated then facing many problems so we discuss this article how to Bottle gourd pest control.

Fruit fly

The adults are reddish dark brown fly with hyaline wings and yellow legs with dark rust red, and black patterns on the thorax, The maggots are legless and measure 8-9mm long when full grown in length and are yellow and opaque. The fruits develop brown rotten patches. Infected fruits become unmarketable as they begin to rot and drop down.

Management

i) Plough round the trees during winter to expose and skill pupae.

ii) Apply Carbaryl 10% per pit before sowing of seeds.

iii) After harvest dip the fruits with 5% sodium chloride solution for 60 minutes to kill the eggs.

Bottle gourd pest control | Pest Management

Pumpkin Beetle

Pumpkin Beetle

Pumpkin beetle is the most important pest of all cucurbitaceous crops. This pest damage only adult insects, which feed voraciously on the leaves, flowers, and adults. The grabs put the soil and feed on roots and stem of the bottle gourd plant.  Then the fruit touching the ground are destroyed by the larvae which penetrate into the fruit.

Management

i) At first soil treatment with BHC, DDT, Neem Kernel or Dieldrin.

ii) Spray mixture of lime and calcium arsenate or Parathion 0.025% or Phosphamidon 0.04%.

Aphids

This pest damage any Cucurbitaceae crop. High humidity season this pest is favorable to fast quality. This pest mainly monitored on the below leaves. Ants carry the aphids from one plant to another plant.

Management

i) Spray Oxydemeton methyl 25EC @ 1.25 liters or Dimethoate 30EC @ 1.70 liters in 1200 liters of water/ha.

Epilachna Beetle (Bottle gourd pest control)

Epilachna Beetle

The yellowish colored grabs and an adult are attacks on the leaves and tender plant parts, then the leaves completely veinskeletonizedd to a network.

 Management

i) Egg, Grubs, and adults both are removed and destroyed.

ii) Spray Carbaryl @ 20-25 gm per 15 liters of water.

Bottle gourd cultivation practices | Farming bottle gourd

Bottle gourd is one of the most popular vegetables in South East Asia, Europe, and America. It is the annual vegetable plant and it leaves are large and lush and the plant it. Let us have a look at How to plant bottle gourd or Bottle gourd cultivation practices Bottle gourd scientific name of Lagenaria siceraria, and family of Cucurbitaceae.  The vegetable in green stage and leaves with the stem are used as the vegetable and the bottle gourd used different purpose.

Bottle gourd plant photo

Top 10 Bottle gourd health Benefits

  • Helps to cool in the body
  • Provide better sleep
  • Prevent cardiovascular problems
  • Better liver problems
  • Improve bone health
  • Provided immune system
  • Helps for weight loss
  • Helps hair benefits
  • Glowing skin
  • Helps Heart healthy

Bottle gourd cultivation practices | How to plant Bottle gourd

Bottle gourd variety

Some common variety of bottle gourd is Samrat, Kalyanpur, CO1, Narendra Rashmi, Pusa Komal, Pusa Sandhesh, Pusa Naveen, Arka BaharSummer profile Round, Summer profile long and many more.

The Hybrid variety is- Pusa Hybrid 3 F, Kashi Bahar, TNAU bottle gourd, MGH 4 and many more.

Climate Required Bottle gourd farming

The hot and moist climate is favorable for bottle gourd cultivated. Bottle gourd grows well between 30-350 C. Seed germination temperature required between 20-250 C.  The plant’s required moderate rainfall and are sensitive to the flow of water.

Soil required for Bottle gourd cultivation practices

Bottle gourd can grow all types of soil but sandy loam soil is the best of bottle gourd cultivation. Soil pH range is 6.4-7.6 is the best, and land should be prepared thoroughly by 5-6 ploughings.

Seed rate

Normally seed rate bottle gourd cultivation is 4-6kg seeds per hector. Seed treatment is very important so at first seed treatment with Carbendazim 2gm/kg or Trichoderma viride 4gms/kg before sowings.

Bottle gourd seed

Sowing time Sowing method

Summer season crop time is January to February and rainy season crop time June to July

Generally, two to three seeds are sown per pit in 2.5-3.0 cm depth and spacing distance 2-3m x 1.0-1.5m.

Intercultural Operation

In the initial stage of development, two to three whipping is given to keep weeds closed. Rainy season is usually stalked often in a pudding made of bamboo and stick.

Manure and Fertilizer for Bottle gourd cultivation practices

Apply 20-ton Compost or Vermicompost or Farm yard manure per ha. NPk required 35:25:25 kg per ha. Apply half nitrogen and full Phosphorus, potash last stage of land preparation. After 35-40 days plant sowing, you can apply half nitrogen.

Nitrogen based fertilizers

Phosphorus based fertilizers

Potassium based fertilizers 

Irrigation

Summer season crops due to needing for heavy irrigation during the 4-5 days, rainy season crops do not require irrigation, and winter season crop irrigation required when the plant needed. Drip irrigation is the most advantages for bottle gourd cultivation.

Harvesting and Yield

The fruits should be harvested when they are still green and tender. Delay in harvesting caused the fruit to become unfit for marketing.

Bottle gourd yield depends on soil, climate, variety, fertilizers, but the average yield of bottle gourd is 95-120 quintal/ ha.

If you have any question Bottle gourd cultivation practices this article then feel free to ask me in the below comment section-

Pumpkin Planting guide | Pumpkin Cultivation information

Pumpkin is a very popular vegetable in the world. It cultivated in the summer and rainy season. It is the round and long shape. This vegetable use daily cooking and preparation sweet. Pumpkin botanical name is Cucurbita maxima, and family is Cucurbitaceous. Let us have look at Pumpkin Planting guide or Pumpkin cultivation information.  Top country pumpkin cultivation is China, India, Russian Federation, Ukraine, United States and many more country’s.This vegetable young stem, leaves, and flowers have used many medicinal properties.

Pumpkin cultivation

Top 10 Health Benefits of Pumpkin

  • It protects your eyes
  • It protects your prostate
  • Younger Looking Skin
  • Lower Cancer Risk
  • It helps for Weight Loss
  • Boosts Immunity
  • It maintains Hearth Health
  • It helps Diabetes
  • It prevents skin
  • Boosts Male Sexual Health

Pumpkin Planting guide | Best way to plant pumpkins

Climate

It is a hot seasonal crop but it can prevent cold weather. Pumpkin needs minimum temperature 180 C in an early stage, Pumpkin cultivation temperature required is 24-280 C.

Soil for Pumpkin Planting guide

This vegetable growing all types of soil, but clay loam and sandy loam soil is the best for pumpkin cultivation. Soil pH range is 6-7.

Best Pumpkin Variety

Hybrid Variety– PPH-1, PPH-2, PAU Magah Kaddo-1, Punjab Samrat and many more.

Other top variety– Arka Chandan, Arka Suryamukhi, Saras, Suvarna, Ambili, TCR 011, CO2

If you know more Pumpkin variety then study this article.

pumpkin seed

Sowing Time and Spacing

Pumpkin plant grows during the period from January to March and September to December. Rainfed crop sowing during the period of May to June.

Directed sowing method is the best method of pumpkin sowing. Sow 3-4 seeds per pit and spacing 3 x3m and deep 1 inches in the soil.

Seed Required for Pumpkin Planting guide

Generally 1.5-2kg of pumpkin seeds sufficient enough for one-hectare pumpkin cultivation. After sowing the seeds at first seed treatment with Benlate or Bavistin @ 2.5gm per kg of seeds.

Fertilizers required

Apply Compost or Vermicompost or Farm yard manure at 20-25 ton per hector, and NPK is 50:25:25 per hector. Apply half Nitrogen and full Phosphorus and Potassium in land preparation.  After 30 days of sowing, you can apply half Nitrogen. More details are known then study Best fertilizer pumpkin article.

Irrigation

Poper irrigation at proper intervals of time is required. Irrigation required after seed sowing. During the initial stage of growth irrigation at 3-4 days interval and alternate days flowing/fruits. Rainy season time drainage is essential for plant survival and growth.

Pumpkin Planting guide

Pumpkin pest and Diseases

We already discuss that please study this article their share facing all growing pumpkin problems share

Harvesting and Yield (Pumpkin Planting guide)

Crop harvesting is mainly done when the fruit’s color in brown place and the inner flesh becomes golden yellow color. Mature fruits having good storage capacity then used for long distance transportation.

Pumpkin yield depends on variety, soil, climate and plant management. An average yield of pumpkin expected up to 25-30 ton per hector.

Growing litchi tree | Litchi tree information | Health Benefits

Litchi is the most important testy fruit in the world, This fruit is very famous for its pleasant flavor and pulp. It provided a high amount of Vitamins, B Vitamin, Calcium, Protein, Iron, Manganese, Potassium, Manganese etc. Let us how to growing litchi tree. Litchi Botanical name is Litchi Chinensis, and family is Sapindaceae. Litchi cultivated top country is China, Taiwan, Thailand, India, Madagascar, South Africa, Australia and many more.

Litchi plant fruit

Top 10 Health Benefits of Litchi fruits

  • Provided Vitamin C
  • Aids Digestion
  • Improve Blood Circulation
  • Skin Protection
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agent
  • Aid Weight Loss
  • Regulation Blood Pressure
  • Create strong Bones
  • Provided Hair growth
  • Anti Cancerous

Growing litchi tree | Litchi tree information

Climate

Litchi farming well in the humid environment in the subtotal climate. The characterization of the fruit size and other fruits development by the humidity in the atmosphere. These fruit trees are not tolerated frost and it is best grown and yield for optimum temperature is 26-340C, yearly rainfall required 1200mm.

Soil for Growing litchi tree

It can grow any variety of soil. It is a deep dietary soil with the deep organic matter and it produces well with a strong force. Litchi crops cannot tolerate high pH and saline soils. Litchi cultivation soil pH range is 5.0-7.0 is the best.

Variety

Popular variety litchi is Souey Tung, Wai Chee, Sah Keng, Kaimana, Tai So, Bengal, Salathiel, Fay Zee Siu, Kwai May Pink and many more.

Litchi litlte age

Sowing time and Spacing

The best time litchi planting is May- June, this time can be help climate for establishing for the new plant, and you can cultivate also done in August- September, where there are irrigation facilities. The planting plant chose two years old plant.

The difference between row to row  8-10 meter and plant to plant 8-9 meter, this method planting then accommodated in the one-hectare plant are a 121-144 plant.

Sowing Depth  Method

Two weeks before planting the prepared 1 x 1 x 1-meter pad, the desired place was dug.The fill pad 20-25kg cow dung or Vermicompost, 2kg bone meal, and 300gm Mop. After filling it sprinkle some water, planting a plant in the middle of the hole.

Intercrops

It is a slow-growing crop required time 8-10 years for the commercial bearing. This time you can intercrop 3-4 years can be taken. As well as improving the soil condition, along with enrichment of soil, we also provide additional annual income for weed control. You can be intercropping Vegetable (Cucumber, ridge gourd, bitter gourd) and pulses are the best.

Fertilizers for Growing litchi tree

Litchi plant required organic manure for their roots for good growth. It is a well-established fact that severe shortages of NPK hamper vegetables and reproductive growth of litchi. Small-scale manufactures like Gene, B, and K also play an important role in litchi nutrients in the soil, especially flowers, fruit sets, fruit preserves and fruit quality. You can flow this chart

Age of PlantFarm yeard Manor           UreaSuperphosphate Murieta of Potassium
         1-3         10-30kg       100-300gm       200-300gm      100-150gm
         4-6         40-60kg       400-600gm       450-600gm     200-300gm
        7-10        65-90kg       700-900gm      750-1000gm     300-450gm
   10 Plus age          100kg         1000gm     1200-1400gm       500gm

Irrigation for Growing litchi tree

You can apply irrigation all stages of plant development.  For litchi fruit growing you can apply approximately 2-3 irrigations for 45-60 days. And summer month time you can irrigate after 12-15 days. Heavy rain following prolonged draught causes fruit to crack.

Harvesting

After the fifth year of planting, litchi trees start bearing. The yield continues to increase with the increase in tree size up to 20 years of age. The fruit bunch in the crop. When harvesting, take a little portion of the leaves and branches. If you can deliver local market harvesting is to be done when they start to turn pink.You can study world Based Litchi production report.

Growing litchi tree

After harvesting the colored of fruits depends on the size of the crop, and carefully removed damage and cracked fruits. Store litchi fruits at 1.6-1.70 C.  At this temperature, the fruit can be stored for 8-12 weeks.

Yield (Litchi tree information)

Litchi fruit depends on yielding on variety, climate, soil. On an average litchi yields up to 50-100kg per tree annually.

 

Guava farming Techniques | Cultivation | Guava plant Information

Guava is the most popular tropics fruits. It considered as one of the exquisite and nutritionally valuable and remunerative crops. Guava Botanical name is Psidium guajava, and family is Myrtaceae. Guava cultivated top country is India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, Bangladesh, Philippines, and Nigeria. Let us have look at Guava farming Techniques or Guava Plant Information. Guava is a relatively slow grower that develops fruit after 2 years. It is a rich source of Vitamin C, Pectin and a good source of Phosphorus, Calcium.

Guava plant

 Top 10 Health Benefits of Guava fruits

  • Diabetes-Friendly
  • Lowers Risk of Cancer
  • Improve Eyesight
  • Treats Constipation
  • Guava During Pregnancy
  • Good for Brain
  • Weight Loss
  • Improves Complexion
  • Regulation of Blood Pressure Levels
  • Prevent Stomach Problem

Guava farming Techniques | Cultivation

Climate Required

Guava can grow under tropical and subtropical climate. The rainfall needed 800-1000 mm from June to Last September and It can be cultivated under both rainfed and irrigated condition. Young plants are susceptible to drought and cold condition. Winter season-low night temperature best quality for guava fruits.

Soil Required

Almost all soils type soil suitable for guava cultivation, it is sensitive to waterlogging. Alkaline soil is not suitable for higher guava production and topsoil should be rich for a better stand.  Soil PH maintain then gives higher production, and PH range is 5.0-8.0

Variety for Guava farming Techniques

The popular variety is- Allahabad Surkha, Lalit, Lucknow- 49, Allahabad Safeda, Baruipur local, Harijha and many more.

The Hybrid varied is Kohir safeda, Arka Amula, Safed Jam, Purple Malaysian, White Malaysian, Benjamin, Mexican Cream and many more.

Guava flower

Land Preparation

Land should be prepared with deeply ploughed, and create a drain their excess water drain out. Removed all weeds in previous crops. At first soil testing then apply Organic manure in last ploughed.

Planting for Guava farming Techniques

The pits size is 0.6 x 0.6 x0.6m or big pit size 1.0 x1.0 1.0 m dimension should be dug the monsoon and after 20 days you should be the field with soil mixture 15-20 kg Organic manure and 500gm Singel Superphosphate.

Season and Spacing 

Planting should be done in rainy season, June- July is the best season or October – November moths depend on rainfall.

Guava plant spacing depends on variety, soil fertility, availability of irrigation. Standard spacing up to 6m x 6m (112 plants/acre), Traditional planting spacing up to 5.5 x 7.0m, Model scheme distance up to 4.5 x 4.5m and Commonly distanced up to 3.5 x 5.5m.

Guava Manure and fertilizers

The fertilizers required depending on soil fertility. Otherwise, you can apply NPK @ 110:40:40gm per year up to 3 years same does. The fertilizers divided two parts- one part applies January month and other parts apply August month. More information about guava fertilizers recommendation, you can study this article then fully understand.

Irrigation

Generally, irrigation water is not needed during the growing period, but 10-12 times per year supplied water then plant growth healthy. Guava mostly grows in the rainy daytime. Winter season time you can apply irrigation 20-25 days, and the summertime you can apply irrigation 10-15 days.

Drip Irrigation (Told us Guava farming Techniques)

Drip irrigation provided very profitably for guava cultivation, This method can save 60% water, labour cost. It is very useful in the low watering regions. Drip irrigation improves fertilizers efficiency and fruits quality.

Intercropping

Fast three years you can cultivate Pineapple, Cucumber, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Papaya, Tomato, chilli, Okra,  Beans and many more.

Guava Pest and Diseases

If you cultivated, then facing many problems as Pest and Diseases, we already discussed Guava pest and Diseases. Study this article then solve your problems.

Guava plant fruit

Harvest and Yield (Told us Guava farming Techniques)

Harvesting time depends on the variety. The fruits come in the 4-5 months after flowering. Winter crop gives better quality fruits then rainy season crops. Crop frequency for rainy season 2-3 days, and winter season crop frequency 4-5 days.

Guava yield depending depends on variety, soil, climate, irrigation, the age of plant and fertilizers. First yielding start third year with 4-5kg, after eight years later 100-150kg fruits per plant. The average guava fruit yields 25 ton/ha.

Mango plant information | How to grow a Mango tree

Mango is one of the preferred and most ancient fruits known to mankind and it is called the king of fruits. In addition to the delicious flavors of excellent flavor and attractive aroma, it is rich in vitamin A and C. Mango Botanical name is Mangifera indica L, and family is Anacardiaceae. Let us have a look at How to grow a mango tree or Mango plant information. Top five mango production country are India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico. Worldwise an area of 4946 thousand ha with a production 37.12 million ton (Approx).

Mango tree with fruits

10 Mango Health benefits

i) Prevent Hert Disease

ii) May help Treat Diabetes

iii) Improve Digestion

iv) Promote Healthy Sex

v) Aid Weight Loss

vi) Improve Eye Health

vii) Regulate Blood Pressure

viii) Boost Bone Health

ix) Promote Brain Health

x) Improve Hair Health

Mango plant information | How to grow a mango tree

Climate Require

Since mango season droughts in a seasonal tropical environment arise within a certain time. Mango can tolerate expansive from the tropical climate to the tropical area. This is the best result for low rainfall and low relative humidity in the flowering stage, fruit setting and Harvest required a warm to hot climate during the fruit development. The young tree killed by temperature below 0.50C. Mango tree cultivation best temperature is 24-290 C, but hot temperature (up to 480 C) cultivated just required trees are getting regular irrigation.

Soils Required

Mango grows all type of soil but light sands to heavy clays soil are very good. Alkaline soil not suitable for successful mango cultivation. The soil with very inferior, rocky and solid layers should be avoided. Check your soil PH to see it is a sufficient acidity range. The trees have grown well in the soil that has a PH of 4.5-7. Prepare the soil so that it spreads to about three feet deep because it will give plenty of space to spread the roots.

Mango tree plant

Mango Variety

Top 10 Variety are- Pairi (May-June), Himsagar (April-May), Safeda (April-June), Totapuri(June-July), Alphonso (May-June), Neelam (May-July), Dussehri(June-July), Kesar (June-July), Langra (July-August), and Chausa (July-August).

More information Mango variety then study this article.

Mango planting season (Mango plant information)

Planting usually done in July to August in rainfed areas and February to March in irrigated areas.

Spacing Required

The spacing distance is 10m. x 10m. and 12m. x 12m. in dry and moist zones. In model scheme spacing of 8m. x8m. (63 plants per acre). Physical higher growth plants spacing required of 13m. x 13m.

Training and Pruning (Mango plant information)

From the base of the main trunk should be kept free from the almost one-meter branch and after 20-25 centimeters away from the original stem, this can be separated so that they increase from different directions. The branches that can fracture each other on each other may move the pencil thickly.

Fertilizers required

In general Urea 160-180gm, Single super Phosphate 110-120gm and potash 110-115gm per plant/year. If you want to study more knowledge about Mango fertilizers required then study this article.

Irrigation (Mango plant information)

Mango trees are strongly in nature, so less water is needed than other commercial fruits trees. Then you should be irrigated at an interval of8 to 12 days. Irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months because flowering as it is likely to promote vegetable growth at the expense of flowering. When the mango three come fruits this stage about two irrigation is essential.

Mango tree Pest and diseases control

Mango tree diseases totally damage mango fruits then down market value. so how to control mango tree diseases, and How to control Mango pest, read this article there fully describe.

Mango plant information

Harvesting and yield (Mango plant information)

When mango color is changed to dark green to light green, and harvesting after start few fruits dropping the morning time. Harvested fruits are kept on gunny bags under shade.

when 3-4 years old a mango gives 10-20 fruits per year, 5 years later a mango tree gives 50-80 fruits per year, 10 years old a mango tree gives 400-500 fruit, And when a mango tree age of 20 plus age they give 1000-3000 fruits per year.

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