Bitter Gourd Plant information | Bitter Melon Cultivation

Bitter gourd is a very important vegetable for us. The Botanical name is Momordica Charantia L. and family is Cucurbitaceae. It is the most popular cucurbitaceous vegetable. This vegetable is a groud source of Calcium, Iron, Vitamin B, and Phosphorus. It can successfully grow on elevation from sea level about 1200m. Let us have look at Bitter Gourd Plant information.

Bitter gourd photo

Bitter Gourd Health Benefits | Bitter Melon Health Benefits

i) Improved Immunity

ii) Cancer Prevention

iii)Liver Tonic

iv) Blood Purification

v) Diabetes Treatment

vi) Lower Cholesterol

vii) Skin Benefits

viii) Weight Loss

ix) Vitamin K Source

x) Carbohydrate Digestion

Bitter Gourd Plant information | Bitter Melon Cultivation

Bitter Gourd Top Variety

Improve Variety:- MDU-1,  Priya, Hirkani, Phule Privanka, Konkan Tara, Phule Ujala, Phule Green Gold and many more.

Hybrid Variety:-  Rupali, Shaukeen, Paras, RK-163  and many more. If you want to know more Bitter gourd variety details then study this article.

Soil Required

Bitter gourd can grow all type of soil, but well-drained loam and loam soil are the best for Bitter gourd cultivation. Soil PH range is 6-7.5. Soil temperature for germination is 20-250 C.

Climate Required

It is a seasoned crop. Bitter gourd cultivated minimum temperature of 180 C and best temperature required 23-280 C.

The Season for Bitter Gourd Plant information

Mainly January to March for a Summer crop and June to July for the rainy season.

Seed rate

Approx 5-6kg seeds required per Hectare.

Seed Treatment and Sowing

Seed treatment with Carbendazim 10gm/ kg of seed or Trichoderma Viride 4gm/kg of seed.

Sow the seeds are 5seeds/pit. Difference between Row to Row 120cm and plant to plant 35cm for Staking System. And row to row 180cm, plant to plant 45cm  for Ground System.

Fertilizers Required (Bitter Gourd Plant information)

Basically required organic fertilizer 10 ton/Acre and Inorganic fertilizers required N: P:K – 25:50:50 kg /Acre.  But you can apply 10kg Compost or Vermicompost or FYM 10kg/ pit, Inorganic fertilizers NPK are 6:12:!2 gm/pit.  After 30 days then you can apply N and P 6: 6gm/pit.

Bitter Gourd Pest and Disease Control

We already discuss how to control Bitter gourd Pest and Diseases. You can study this article then fully understand.

Irrigation Required

At first irrigation before sowing of seeds. Then sowing of seeds you can Irrigation per one week.

Bitter gourd Harvest photo

Harvesting

Most early varieties you can start harvesting about two months after germination. Picked should be carefully and focused the vine may not be damaged. The harvested vegetable may be store 3-5days in cool condition.

Yield (Bitter Gourd Plant information)

Approx Yield- Improve variety 15-20 ton/ha in 140-140 days and Hybrid crops 45-50 ton/ha in 180 days.

Brinjal Pest Control | Eggplant pest control

Eggplant and Brinjal both are same. If you cultivated Brinjal then facing many problems so today fully discuss How to Brinjal Pest Control or Eggplant pest control.

Leaf Eating Beetle

The yellow color grubs and adults eating leaves seriously. The reason for serious damage to the soft part of the plants and often appear in the number. The beetle chew holes in plant leave the are around 1/8 inches diameter. As the result, the leaves are completely skeletonized.

Management

i) Collect then destroyed infected leaves.

ii) Fully watch grabs, adult and eggs destroyed.

iii) Spray Carbaryl @ 3-4gm/liter of water or Malathion 2ml/liter of water.

Brinjal Pest Control | Eggplant Pest Control

Eggplant Stem borer

The full-grown caterpillar is creamy white and has a few bristly hastily and their body tapers posteriorly. Presence of brown colored egg mass near leaf tip. The caterpillar feeds exclusively in the main stem and has never been observed to bore into the fruits. The Plant could be easily pulled by hand.

Management

i) Remove and destroyed affect plant.

ii) Spray Neem seed kernel extract controls stem borer.

iii) Spray Malathion 50EC @500ml or Dichlorvos 100EC @ 300ml in 300 liter of water /ha.

Fruit and Shoot borer

The plant is effected in the first phase of the crop and the fruiting continues to the stage. The yield and fruit yield leading to a severe reduction in yield due to a serious damage. The crop loss begins soon after planting and the fruit continues till harvesting. Small pink larvae of pest initially bore into the terminal shoots resulting in withering and drying of the shoot. Larvae bore the fruits and make them unfit for consumption.

Management

i) In the same piece of land, the continuous harvest of eggplant should be left over.

ii) All the oppressed flower buds, the proper collection of the crop during harvest.

iii) Continuous cultivated of eggplant supports pest infestation

iv) Spray Cypermethrin 0.5ml or Carbaryl 0.1%.

Jassids (Brinjal Pest Control)

It is a polyphagous pest and it serious damage by sucking the leaf.  Nymphs and adult pest sap from the surface and can be found on top of margarine. They are transmitted like macro plasma disease, such as mosaic. As the result sets are adversely affected due to losses.

Management

i) Avoid overuse of Nitrogen fertilizers.

ii) Use yellow sticky traps to monitor sucking pest activity.

iii) Spray Malathion @ 0.1% or Dichlorvos @ 0.05%.

Mealy Bug

The Nymphs and adult are sucks from the leaves, tender shoots, and the fruit. Soup to their pale and week plant to suck. The harmful plants wilt and dry. Lots of insects during the rainy season.

Management

Spray Malathion @ 625ml or Chlorpyriphos 0.05% in 300 liter of water/ha.

Eggplant leafroller (Brinjal Pest Control)

The moths are of medium size having bright orange-yellow color and bear a number of black dots on the wings. Moths are medium size having wing expanses 25-35mm. They are always found in the leaf fold and damage the folded leaves wither and dry up. The larvae also fold the leaves and feed on the green matter while remaining inside the fold and thus lead a secret life.

Management

i) A direct method of removing and destroying the leaves rolled along with worms inside the damaged shoot.

ii) Removed and destroyed the folded leaves along with caterpillar inside.

iii) Spray Endosulfan 35 EC in 300 liters f water.

Mites

These are minute, polyphagous pests found in large colonies on the underside of the leaves covered with fine silky webs. They are described in expanded-oval, microscopic and deep orange colors. Both nymphs and adult sap between the veins undersurface of leaves and produce soft profuse webbing. It gives a chlorotic a[[earance and beats the leaves and flower prematurely.

Management

i) Infected plant reduced in the field. The infestation subsides after sharp showers.

ii) Spray Dimethoate 30 EC or Oxydemeton Methyl 25EC in 300 liters of water/ha.

Root Knot Nematodes (Brinjal Pest Control)

Root-knot nematode damage is more harmful than saplings than older plants. Affected plant galls development on damage plant roots. The plants stunted and should the leaves chlorotic signs. Fruiting is adversely affected.

Management

i) Crop rotation

ii) Apply DD-100 @ 230liters/ha or Nemagone-60 @34liters/ha

More Study

Eggplant Planting guide 

How to control Brinjal Plant diseases

Brinjal Plant diseases | Eggplant diseases Identification

At first, told you Brinjal and Eggplant are same. If you cultivated Brinjal or Eggplant then facing many problems so I fully discuss how to control Brinjal Plant diseases or Eggplant diseases identification.

Sclerotinia Blight

Scierotinia

The symptoms are mainly on cereals and branches. Sings are changed in host species, but there are many similarities in the mail, Initially. The water poured with an irregular shape appear in the fruit, leaves or petiole. The entire plant may be in form of infection in the stem. In addition to eggplants, it also contributes to tomato, potato, peas, chicken, and spices.When the fruits are attacked, rotating in meat and tissue, the syringe is seen. The rash rises in the form of sparks of the soil or plant destruction.

Management

i) Collect and harvest all the debris from the plant.

ii) In the deep summer, the farmer ploughing should be done.

iii) Spray Bavistin or Ziram or Ferban has been reported to give some relief.

Brinjal Plant diseases | Eggplant diseases identification

Damping off

damping off

Damping off is a seedbed that is mostly seeded for plants or even when it is directly seeded.  The diseases are a Nursery bead disease. High soil, humidity, and moderate temperature, especially during monsoon, develops with high humidity. The fungus attack In the two phases as

Pre-emergence damping-off –  The small seedling dies before they emerge out of the soil surface.

Post-emergence damping off- After the exit the soil, the movement of seed in the infected seed is stopped at any time.

Management

i) Cultural practices such as thin seeds, blight soil use, best irrigation of nursery beds, use of perfume fertilizers removed the diseases.

ii) Treat seed with Caption or Thiram or Agrosan @2.5gm/kg of seed before sowing.

Alternaria Leaf spot

Alternaria

The disease touches the characteristic leaves with centralized ring and brown with irregular spots are produced on the leaves. Several spots may coalesce to form bigger necrotic patches. The symptom of the affected fruit cause large deep-seated spots. Infected fruits become yellow and drop prematurely.

Management

i) Remove and destroy the affected plant.

ii) Spray Bavistin @ 0.1% in the affected parts.

Verticillium Wilt (Brinjal Plant diseases)

This disease attack the young plants as well as the mature plants. The main symptoms of infection on roots and stems. Infected plants stunted in growth and do not come flower and fruit. Infected leaf displays the presence of yellow stains of scarring scattered on thin laminates. The roots of damaged plants become prolonged a characteristic dark brown demonstration if Xylem ships are observed.

Management

i) Use resistant cultivars

ii) Crop rotation with potato, lady finger, tomato should be avoided.

iii) Soil application 0.1% Benlate gives effective control of the diseases.

Mosaic (Brinjal Plant diseases)

The symptom range from mild mosaic to serious stab, etching, and necrosis of the leaf tissues.  The disease is mosaic mottling of the leaves and stunting of plants. Infected plants bear a smaller number of flowers and fruit and fruit size are small

Management

i) In the nursery stage controlled Aphid.

ii) Spray Phosphamidon @ 0.05% per 10 days in the interval starting from 15-20 days.

iii) Grow resistant variety

Bacterial Wilt

The bacterial wilt causes serious problems in the cultivation of eggplants. The symptom is yellowing, stunting, and Muktakeshi, foliage followed by the collapse of the entire plant. Vascular stem becomes brown and lower leaves drop before wilting.

Management

i) Grow resistant variety

ii) Crop rotation with Potato, ladies finger, the brinjal should be avoided

Little leaf (Brinjal Plant diseases)

This is the serious diseases of eggplant. This disease is transmitted by the leafhopper. Ths leaf is early stage is light yellow color. This diseases affected the generally large number of branches, roots and leave smaller than healthy plants.The flower mainly distorted to sterilize the plant. Infected plant fruit is very heard.

Management

i) In the initial stage, patients suffering from diseases.

ii) Sowing time can be adjusted to avoid the beet leafhoppers main plants.

iii) Spray Malathion @ 2ml/ liter of water.

More Information

How to Eggplant cultivation.

How to Eggplant Pest control

Eggplant Planting guide | Eggplant growing Stage

Eggplant other name is Brinjal, the Botanical name is Solanum melongena L. family is Nightshade. Eggplant is a very important vegetable. Its cultivated country is China, India, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia, Iraq, Japan, Italy, Philippines and many more. So let have a look at Eggplant Planting guide. It is a versatile crop that is adapted to various agro-climatic regions and can be grown throughout the year.

Eggplant cultivation field

Eggplant Health benefits

i) Help for Weight loss

ii) Aid in Digestion

iii) Prevent Anemia

iv) Prevent Cancer

v) Improve Bone Health

vi) Improve Heat health

vii) Improve Brain Function

viii) Prevent Birth Defect

ix) Maintain Blood Cholesterol

x) Beater Liver health

Eggplant Planting guide | Eggplant Growing stage

Eggplant Varieties

Bianca Eggplant    Graffiti Eggplant    Japanese Eggplant  Chinese Eggplant   Tango Eggplant   Santana Eggplant, Little green Eggplant, Thai Eggplant More deeply Eggplant details.

Climatic Requirement ( Eggplant growing stage)

The eggplant is a warm season crop, and therefore susceptible to severe frost. Low season crops are a deformation of vegetable and affect the fruit quantity.  It flourishes best during the warm growing season with a temperature range of 13-270 C. Eggplant seed germination well 23-260 C.

Eggplant Planting guide

Soil requirement for Eggplant Planting guide

The eggplant plants are grown all types of soil and well-drained soil rich in organic matter with PH of 6.0-7.5.The soil should be well prepared by 4-5 times ploughed. For the development of good root, which is important for plant growth, soil needs to be relaxed to a depth of six to eight inches.

Sowing Time & Seed rate

The eggplant sowing time is May-June, August- September, and December- January. Varieties seed are 400450gm/ha and Hybrids seed are 200250gm.ha.

Nursery bed preparation

Apply Neem cake 1kg, FYM 10lg, VAM 50gm, super Phosphate 100gm before sowing. For planting 1 ha required area 100 square meter.

Transplanting for Eggplant Planting guide

Planting is ready for planting 4-5 weeks when they achieve a height of 12-15cm and with 3-4 leaves.  Take care of the seeds without from the roots. Transplanting should be done during the evening hours followed by irrigation and firmly press the soil around the seedlings.  In general variety 60 x 60cm is the best specification and Hybrid variety required specification 75-80 x 60-70 cm.

Fertilizers required

Apply Compost or Vermicompost or FYM @ 20-25ton/ha at the land preparation. Fertilizers required N P K – 75:40:25 kg/ ha. Land preparation time you can apply half Nitrogen, Half Phosphorus, and full Potassium. After 30days (After Planting)  you can apply one four nitrogen and half phosphorus. Your plant will be 6o days (After planting) age then you can apply one four nitrogen.

Irrigation (Eggplant growing stage)

Field irrigation according to the requirement of crops. Irrigation is crucial for the timely development of good growth, flower, and developing fruit. Before irrigation, you can check optimum moisture level and soil fertility conditions. Hot weather time you can apply irrigation every three to four days, winter times apply irrigation every eight to ten days. In the rainy time, you can fully watch weather conditions.

Eggplant vegetable

Eggplant Pest and Diseases

Briefly discuss how to control Brinjal/Eggplant Pest and diseases.Pleases study then fully understand.

How to Brinjal Pest control

How to control Eggplant Diseases

Harvest (Eggplant Planting guide)

Eggplant should be harvest when they attain full size and color but before the start of ripening. Madness is the optimum stage of the collecting of fruits and fruits in bright colors and shiny appearance. When the fruit looks perfect, it is a hint of maturity and quality loss.

Yield from variance season to season and different to the different location.  However, in general, there is a balanced yield of 250-500 q/ha.

Soybean plant diseases | Soybean diseases and there control

If you cultivated soybean then facing many problems, so today discuss how to control Soybean plant diseases.

Downy Mildew

Downy Mildew of soybean

It appears as yellow to white patches on the upper surfaces of old leaves. In severe outbreaks entire leaflets are discolored and which will become necrotic spots. Severely infected leaves fall prematurely. A grayish mold like growth is formed on the undersurface of the lesions.

Management

i) Grow resistant varieties

ii) Removed and destroy serious attack plants.

iii) Removed any weeds to improve air circulation.

Soybean plant diseases | Soybean diseases and there control

Brown stem root

Brown stem root is the major diseases of soybean. This disease is a  continuation of seedling blight, Spots various sizes occur on the stem or near the soil level and on the roots. During the summer season, soybean cultivar and types of the pathogen, leaves may develop brown and yellow discoloration between the veins.

Management

Infested soil should not be sown with soybean three to four years

Soybean Mosaic

Mosaic of soybean

This the most damaging symptoms of soybean. It depends on many variety virus strain, age, and environment of the plant infection.  Molting appears as light and dark green patches on individual leaves. Dark green enations may develop along the main veins. The petioles and internodes are shortened with green infections. Seed set is delayed and reduced greatly. Unifoliate leaves on seedling from infected seeds are chlorotic and roll while trifoliate leaves and reduced in size and show mottling and rugosity.

Management

i) Large size seed should not be cultivated

ii) Use pathogen-free seed

iii) Seed and soil treatment.

iv) The value of insecticides to reduce Soybean Mosaic virus  via controlling aphids uncertain

Soybean Rust (Soybean plant diseases)

Soybean rust is one of the most important diseases of possible soybean. It can spread and thin the leaves of the soybean tree. Tenor reddish-brown wounds first develop the bottom of the leaves. Small pustules develop pin the germ, which breaks open and releases masses of tan spots. Early defoliation and reduction in the number of pods, seeds, and seed weight results due to infection of rust.

Management

i) Grown residence variety.

ii) Spray Defoliation or Dithane M-45 @2.5kg per hain 100 liters of water.

 Damping off

Soybean damping off

Damping off, seed and plant deaths can be a serious disease, and there is great economic importance for soybean production. Germination seeds are very often covered with fungal growth. Infection and loss before the infection are common but difficult to detect. Other causes of disease can cause this problem, so it is important to closely monitor the determination of reason. This disease spreads through irrigation water.

Management

i) Plant varieties with partial resistance to Rhizoctonia.

ii) Seed treatment is very important so you can use Ziram or Caption @ 2.5gm/kg of seed

iii) Plant high-quality seeds combined with phensedyl seed treatment with effect for genuine fungus.

iv) Improve drainage facility in the field.

Brown Spot (Soybean plant diseases)

Brown spots may be caused by fungusSeptoria and also called septoria leaf spot. Small brown spots of varying sizes from pinpoint to about 5mm diameter appear on the leaves, and the leaves are yellow and prematurely shed in severe attacks. Which his often related to yellow patches, on one side of the page, more intensified than the other. There are indefinite margins of stem and pod wounds and are dark in the range in size from flecks to larges.

Management

i) Seed treatment with Zineb or Thiram @2.5gm/kg of seeds.

ii) Spray any copper fungicide @2.-3gm/liter of water.

iii) Planting seed should be diseases free seeds.

Root rot

Root rot of soybean

In many places where soybean is grown, the to cause of futithotha and stem ratch is a significant disease. It is an excellent saprophyte of different plant residues and survives for several years as saprophytic mycelium or sclerotia in absence of soybean. This diseases affected then plant should die. The bark of the primary and secondary roots and stems are shredded and show a large number of sclerotia. After severe rainfall, The symptom is usually seen after one to two weeks, and soil most commonly is silence.

Management

i) The Infected plant should be removed and destroyed.

ii) Seed treatment with Brassicol or Benlate @ 2gm/kg of seed.

iii) Soil treatment with Brassicol @2025kg/ha

iv) Spray Dithane Z-78 @200gm/100 liters of water.

Study: Soybean plant information

Study: Soybean insect pest management

Soybean Insect and Pest control | Pest Management

Soybean is known as the GOLDEN BEN. If you cultivated soybean then face many problems, Today I fully discuss Soybean insect pest management.

Soybean Whitefly

white fly

Whitefly has belonged to the Aleyrodidae family. Nymphs and adult both suck the sap from leaves and cause damage. When a plant has multiple whitefly attacks, the plant becomes weak. They carry viral diseases. The sucking of the sap leaves discolored patches on the parts of the leaf.

Management

i) Avoided planting next to crops infested with whitefly.

ii) Plant resistant varieties where available.

iii) Adopt spraying methods, improve coverage, especially underneath leaves.

iv) Spray Diafenthiuron @ 1gm/liter or Triazophos 40EC @ 1.5gm/liter.

Soybean insect pest management

Soybean Stem fly

soybean stem fly

The maggots are 10-15mm in length and color is light whitish. The adult is small black fly. They are attack older plants show stunting but are not usually killed. The adults feed on the leaves by making multiple punctures which appear white dots. The infested plants show partly dried and drooping leaves which are the typical marks of identification of the pest.

Management

i) Removed and destroy all the affected branches during the initial stages of the attack.

ii) Apply phorate 10G @ 7.5kg/ha or Carbofuran 3G @ 25kg/ha.

iii) Spray Endosulfan 30 EC @ one liter or /monocrotophos 40EC @ 625ml in 250 liter of water.

Soybean Aphids

aphid

The aphid feeding can cause wilting, leaf yellowing, curling, and distortion and stunted or distorted new shoots. They have pear-shaped bodies with long antennae the nymphs similar look to adult. Some aphids species cause gall to form on roots or leaves and some aphids flowers or fruit can become distorted or deformed due to feeding aphids.

Management

i) Destroy egg, larva then better for your plants.

ii) Phosphamidon 40 SL or Dimethoate 30EC  @200gm/500 liters of water/ha.

Soybean Stem Borers (Soybean insect pest management)

The stem borer larvae bore at the base of the plants during the vegetative stage. Signs of damage include the presence of brown-colored egg mass presence near the leaf tip in Nasrin and early replaced plants. The yellow larvae hatch out from the eggs in 5-8 days, enter the leaf sheath, feed for 2-3 days and then bore into the stem near the node.

Management

i) Avoided closing planting.

ii) Use light traps and kill the moths.

iii) Cultivated resistant varieties.

iv) Apply Nitrogen-based fertilizer to soil recommended.

v) Spray Monocrotophos 36SL @ 1100ml/ha  or Chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 2000 ml/ha

Soybean root-knot Knot (Soybean insect pest management)

Normally we have seen problems with Cyst and root-knot in our regular rotations. Roots have knots or gall of different size disrupt the flow of nutrients and water to the top of the plant.

Management

Crop rotation every three years.

Cultivated resistant varieties.

Apply nematicides where the expense can be justified.

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