Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed in the world. Sesame seeds cultivated country is Tanzania, India, Sudan, China, Myanmar, Nigeria, and more countries. If you sesame oilseed cultivated then many more problem facing that. Today I fully discuss sesame diseases pests management in the below section-
Semane diseases pests management
This disease is a continuation of seedling blight. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of small water-soaked irregular spots on the leaves. These spots later extend, enlarge the entire leaf area. Stem bark is loosened and can be peeled easily. In early infection fail to produce flower and die prematurely.
i) Foliar application of Captan or Flytolan @ 0.3% may also be done.
Powdery Mildew (sesame diseases pests management)
This disease is common in South India.Powdery mildew diseases is a fungal disease.The affected leaves are covered with whitish fungal growth and fall off prematurely.
Alternaria leaf spot (sesame diseases pests management)
It is both externally and internally seed-borne fungus. In the spring the fungi will produce spores that are spread by the wind or rain. The lesions will appear as small circular spots with light brown centers surrounded by dark concentric rings. Spotting is most prevent on lower, older leaves, but new leaves are susceptible too. This leaf spots will quickly turn yellow, wilt, and fall due to lack of water. Leaves suffer the most affected flowers, and seed pods can be affected.
i) Seed treatment with Bavistine or Benlate @ 2gm/kg of seeds before seeds sowings.
ii) Spray Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 1.5-2kg/ha( The plant will be 55th days.)
Small water spots develop on the cotyledons of seedlings coming out from the infested seed. In order seedlings, spots of dark brown to black color, round to irregular in shape appear on the true leaves. Similar solar may also be observed on the stems and petioles where the color is black. Both diseases are seed-borne and soil borne. The bacteria can survive on weed hosts.
i) At first, treatment is seed treatment Blavistine 2gm/kg of seeds.
ii) Spray Streptomycin or Agrimycin-100 @ 250 ppm from 25 days of age of plants( 2-3 sprays will be sufficient).
Phyllody (sesame diseases pests management)
This is the most destructive diseases of sesamum occurring wherever this crop is grown. It is transmitted by Jassid Orosius albicinctus. In severe infection, the entire inflorescences are replaced by short twisted leaves closely arranged on a stem with short internodes. Finally, plants lock like a witches broom. If capsules are formed on the lower portion of the sesame plant they do not yield quality seeds.
i) Avoid early sowings.
ii) Rogue out the diseased plants to prevent further spread of the diseases. Then spraying one litter of Malathion 50EC in 250litters of water/ha.
Sesame pests control | sesame diseases pests management
The newly hatched larva is pale yellow and the full-grown larva is greenish measuring about 5cm in length and I am in width with hard integument, whose lateral sides are adorned by dark green to yellow oblique 8 stripes.The massive caterpillars feed on the leaves voraciously and the entire plant is sometimes denuded.
i) Hand pick the caterpillars and destroy by keeping in Kerosene oil.
ii) Plough the field during winter to expose the hibernating pupae.
Sesamum gall fly
The adult is minute mosquito-like fly measuring 2.5mm in length with a wing expanse of 5mm and the larva are maggots are whitish, legless and with body tapering exteriorly. Leading to the formation of a gall-like structure which does not develop into flower/capsules.
i) Clip the galls and pick and burn the shed buds.
ii) Spray the crop with 2.5kg of Carbaryl 50WP in 600 liters of water/ha.
Leaf Webber (sesame diseases pests management)
The newly hatched larvae are whitish to pale green and measure 2mm in length.The Full grown larva is about 15-17mm. The larvae are greenish in color with the black head having short white hairs and the adult are a medium-sized moth with reddish with yellow forewing. They sometimes bore into the stems also and attack capsules when they are formed.
i) Collect and destroy the webbed leaves and infested pods.
ii) Spray neem oil 2% more than two round.
Spray fenvalerate 20EC or deltamethrin or Cypermethrin 10EC in 500 liters of water/ha.
Jassid (sesame diseases pests management)
This insect causes considerable loss by sucking the sap and transmitting a mycoplasma, which induces malformation of the inflorescence.
Spray the crop with one liter of malathion 50EC in 250 liters of water/ha, at least 2 times at 2-3 week intervals.