Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crop grown in temperature countries. Sunflower cultivated major countries is Ukraine, Russia, China, Romania, India and many more countries. If you cultivated sunflower oilseed then many pests and diseases problem creat. I fully discuss how to sunflower pests diseases control.
The aphid feeding can cause wilting, leaf yellowing, curling, and distortion and stunted or distorted new shoots. The aphids are pear-shaped, most are wingless, and they generally do not move rapidly when disturbed. They have mostly damaged undersurface of the young leaves and cutting of leaves.
i) Insecticidal soaps or horticultural oils sprayed directly eggs, larva and adult aphids pest.
ii) Phosphamidon 40 SL or Dimethoate 30EC @200gm/500 liters of water/ha.
sunflower pests diseases control
The moth is grayish brown with white marking on the forewing and hind wings with radiantly white with a brown border. Flowers are susceptible in the early stages of bloom.
spray 2.0 liters of endosulfan 35EC or 2.0 kg of carbaryl 50wp in 250 liters of water/ha.
Sunflower Head borer(sunflower pests diseases control)
The head borer is a serious pest in sunflower plant. The young larva first attacks tenders parts like (Bracts and petals). This pest attack then fungal developed and head starts rotting. They may also shift to the backside of the heads and leaves.
i) Destruction and collection head borer pest eggs and trap crop as well as main crop.
ii) Destruction and collection head borer larva and trap crop as well as main crop.
Sunflower diseases control
Sunflower Alternaria blight
The diseases appear in the form of brown spots on the leaves. The spots become dark brown to black in color. The spots also appear 90% on the stem, sepals, and petals.
i) Crop rotation is the best way.
ii)Spray Dithane M-45 @3gm/liter of water.
Sunflower Stem root (sunflower pests diseases control)
The pathogens attack basal of the stem. The sclerotia of this pathogen, almost of the size of the sunflower seed, are produced in abundance which is visible in the pith of rotten stem and infected head.
i) Keep the wild free field.
ii) Destroy and collect the affected plants.
iii) Crop rotation is the best way.
iv) Seed treatment with Thiram @2-2.5gm/kg of seed.
Sunflower Head Rot
There are several hearts other than Sclerotinia that affect sunflower. Several irregular water-soaked spots develop on the surface of the head near stalk and spread gradually to the head. The fungal pathogen enters the head through the holes and attacks the head and seeds. Seeds are sometimes transformed into black powder mass in severe attacks.
Spray Indofil M-45 @625gm/ 250 liters of water/ha.
Sunflower Powdery mildew(sunflower pests diseases control)
Small discrete white patches develop on both leaf surfaces. Patches coalesce until a powdery mass of white mycelium and spots cover the entire leaf. The leaves later become yellow, then brown, and prematurely defoliate.
i) Avoid drought stress.
ii) If you continue 3 years cultivated then crop rotation is the best method.
Sunflower Rust (sunflower pests diseases control)
It is an autoecious rust. Small round, reddish brown spots covered with rusty colored dust, appear on the lower leaves first, but later on, they spread over the entire leaf even the green parts of the head. The leaves may turn yellow but rarely fall from the plant.
i) Grow resistant varieties like Admiral and Advent.
ii) Spray Dithane Z-78 at the rate of 2gm/liters of water.