sesame diseases pests management | sesame pests and diseases control

Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed in the world. Sesame seeds cultivated country is Tanzania, India, Sudan, China, Myanmar, Nigeria, and more countries. If you sesame oilseed cultivated then many more problem facing that. Today I fully discuss sesame diseases pests management in the below section-

Semane diseases pests management

Stem root

This disease is a continuation of seedling blight. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of small water-soaked irregular spots on the leaves. These spots later extend, enlarge the entire leaf area. Stem bark is loosened and can be peeled easily. In early infection fail to produce flower and die prematurely.

Management

i) Foliar application of Captan or Flytolan @ 0.3% may also be done.

ii) Spray Zineb or Maneb @2kg mixed  800-900 liters of water per Ha.

Powdery Mildew (sesame diseases pests management)

This disease is common in South India.Powdery mildew diseases is a fungal disease.The affected leaves are covered with whitish fungal growth and fall off prematurely.

Management

Spray dusting sulfur or wettable sulfur 20kg/ha.

Alternaria leaf spot (sesame diseases pests management)

alternaria leav spot

It is both externally and internally seed-borne fungus. In the spring the fungi will produce spores that are spread by the wind or rain. The lesions will appear as small circular spots with light brown centers surrounded by dark concentric rings. Spotting is most prevent on lower, older leaves, but new leaves are susceptible too. This leaf spots will quickly turn yellow, wilt, and fall due to lack of water. Leaves suffer the most affected flowers, and seed pods can be affected.

Management

i) Seed treatment with Bavistine or Benlate @ 2gm/kg of seeds before seeds sowings.

ii) Spray Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 1.5-2kg/ha( The plant will be 55th days.)

Bacterial blight

Small water spots develop on the cotyledons of seedlings coming out from the infested seed. In order seedlings, spots of dark brown to black color, round to irregular in shape appear on the true leaves. Similar solar may also be observed on the stems and petioles where the color is black. Both diseases are seed-borne and soil borne. The bacteria can survive on weed hosts.

Management

i) At first, treatment is seed treatment Blavistine 2gm/kg of seeds.

ii) Spray Streptomycin or Agrimycin-100 @ 250 ppm from 25 days of age of plants( 2-3 sprays will be sufficient).

Phyllody (sesame diseases pests management)

This is the most destructive diseases of sesamum occurring wherever this crop is grown. It is transmitted by Jassid Orosius albicinctus. In severe infection, the entire inflorescences are replaced by short twisted leaves closely arranged on a stem with short internodes. Finally, plants lock like a witches broom. If capsules are formed on the lower portion of the sesame plant they do not yield quality seeds.

Management

i) Avoid early sowings.

ii) Rogue out the diseased plants to prevent further spread of the diseases. Then spraying one litter of Malathion 50EC in 250litters of water/ha.

Sesame pests control | sesame diseases pests management

Sesamum sphinx

The newly hatched larva is pale yellow and the full-grown larva is greenish measuring about 5cm in length and I am in width with hard integument, whose lateral sides are adorned by dark green to yellow oblique 8 stripes.The massive caterpillars feed on the leaves voraciously and the entire plant is sometimes denuded.

Management

i) Hand pick the caterpillars and destroy by keeping in Kerosene oil.

ii) Plough the field during winter to expose the hibernating pupae.

Sesamum gall fly

sesamum gally fly

The adult is minute mosquito-like fly measuring 2.5mm in length with a wing expanse of 5mm and the larva are maggots are whitish, legless and with body tapering exteriorly. Leading to the formation of a gall-like structure which does not develop into flower/capsules.

Management

i) Clip the galls and pick and burn the shed buds.

ii) Spray the crop with 2.5kg of Carbaryl 50WP in 600 liters of water/ha.

Leaf Webber (sesame diseases pests management)

The newly hatched larvae are whitish to pale green and measure 2mm in length.The  Full grown larva is about 15-17mm. The larvae are greenish in color with the black head having short white hairs and the adult are a medium-sized moth with reddish with yellow forewing.  They sometimes bore into the stems also and attack capsules when they are formed.

Management

i) Collect and destroy the webbed leaves and infested pods.

ii) Spray neem oil 2% more than two round.
Spray fenvalerate 20EC or deltamethrin or Cypermethrin 10EC in 500 liters of water/ha.

Jassid (sesame diseases pests management)

jasid

This insect causes considerable loss by sucking the sap and transmitting a mycoplasma, which induces malformation of the inflorescence.

Management

Spray the crop with one liter of malathion 50EC in 250 liters of water/ha, at least 2 times at 2-3 week intervals.

 

Mustard pests diseases management | Mustard pest and disease control

India is the fourth largest country’s production of mustard oilseeds. Mustard oilseeds production 28.6% total oilseeds production. If you cultivated mustard seeds then many pets and diseases attack. How to control mustard pests diseases management is given below-

mustard pests diseases management in India

Mustard sawfly

mustard sawfly

The larva- yellow-green, and fine erect black hairs scattered all over the body. The adult small grayish brown having pale whitish narrow wings with yellow inner margins. The larvae on the leaves of mustard by making holes. Sometimes they eat up entire laminae of leaf leaving behind the midrib. It also bores into pods and feeds developing seed.

Management

(i) Collection and careful destruction of the larvae at gregarious stages at latest twice a week.

(ii) Spray endosulfan 35EC or malathion 50EC or quinalphos 25EC in 150-200 liters of water/ha.

Mustard aphid 

mustard aphid

Aphids are minute with the soft and oval body which is generally pale green or slightly yellow in color. This is a very sluggish insect and does not move much in its wingless form. The insect is abundant from December to March and feeds on various cruciferous oilseeds and vegetable crops. The aphid is a serious pest and the main limiting factor in the production of mustard. Aphid- nymphs and adults suck the sap of the tender leaves, twigs, stems, inflorescence and pods by means of piercing and sucking type of mouth-parts.

Management

(i) The crop is sown before 20th October escape the damage.

(ii) Apply recommended fertilizers.

(iii) Spray dimethoate 30EC or endosulfan 35EC or malathion 50EC in 200-315 liters of water/ha.

Study: Vegetable cultivation method

Painted bugs(mustard pests diseases management)

The adult bugs are almost spectacular in shape with conspicuous red and orange spots on the body. The males are always shorter than females pest is active from March to December.  The full-grown nymphs are about 4mm long, and 2.66mm broad and adults are 3.71mm long, and 3.33mm broad.  The nymphs and adults suck cell sap from the leaves and developing pods, and excrete a sort of resinous material which spoils ate pods.

Management

i) Give the first irrigation 2-4 weeks after sowing to reduces the bug population.

ii) Spray endosulfan 35EC or malathion 50EC in 150-200 liters of water/ha.

Mustard Alternaria blight

This is also known as dark leaf and pod spot. The fungus perpetuates through seed and affected plant debris. The pathogen perpetuates through seed and affected plant portion in the soil. During the severe outbreak, pods turn black in color and may also rot. Such pods contain shriveled, undersized seeds.

Management

(i) Grow resistant varieties like YSPB-24 ( mustard variety details)

(ii)Spray Mancozeb 75WP or Blitox in 250 liters of water/ha.

Mustard Downy mildew(mustard pests diseases management)

mustard downy mildew

Downy mildew is a serious disease in mustard. It is caused by the fungus. Downy mildew can affect plants of all ages. Fast symptom appears as small yellow spots or water-soaked lesions on the topside of older leaves, then the result is photosynthetic area caused stunting of plants, reduced yields, of the fruits following defoliation.

Management

(i)Consider washing equipment and tools before moving the field to another.

(ii) Spray Mancozeb 75 WP in 2gm/liter of water.

Mustard white rust

mustard white rust

These pustules are raised blisters found on the leaves, stems and floral parts. Floral parts are much deformed. The petals become green and stamens are transformed into a leaf-like structure which becomes thick and club-shaped. The disease becomes more serious if it occurs along with the downy mildew.

Management

(i) All crop refuse should be destroyed carefully after harvest.

(ii) When symptoms are noticed then Spray Blitox or Mancozeb 75WP 250 liters of water/ha.

Mustard powdery mildew(mustard pests diseases management)

Small discrete white patches develop on both leaf surfaces. Patches coalesce until a powdery mass of white mycelium and spots cover the entire leaf. The leaves later become yellow, then brown, and prematurely defoliate.

Management

i) Avoid drought stress.

ii) If you continue 3 years cultivated then crop rotation is the best method.

iii) Spray Karathane(0.2%) at 10 days interval starting from the first appearance of the disease.

If you have any questions ‘mustard pests diseases management‘ this topic then feel free ask me in the comments section below-

best fertilizer pumpkin | Health benefits

The best fertilizer pumpkin– Pumpkin is a very good vegetable for us. One sentence discusses that pumpkin is a large, round, orange-yellow, edible fruit with many seeds. Pumpkin scientific name is Cucurbita, and the family name is Cucurbitaceae. Pumpkins get their food from the soil. Pumpkins require more water than other vegetable plants. Pumpkins weight4-6kg and largest pumpkin weight are 25kg.

pumpkin

Pumpkin fruit is one of the widely grown vegetable incredible vitamins and vital antioxidants. Today I solidly discuss pumpkins health benefits-

i) Pumpkins are also a powerful source of fiber.

ii) Reducing the risk of cancer.

iii) Reducing blood pressure.

iv) Nutritional breakdown is- 1.76gm Protin, 0gm of Cholesterol, 49gm Calories, 12-01gm Carbohydrate, 2.7gm fiber.

v) Improve Immunity

vi) Boosts energy.

vii) Control blood pressure.

viii) Safeguards your heart.

ix) Improve thyroid function.

x) Pumpkin proved many anti-oxidant, such as vitamin-A, Vitamin-C, Vitamin-E.

best fertilizers pumpkin

Best fertilizer pumpkin

You can use fertilizers, fast look type of soil, pH levels, amount of rainfall, and more.

Before planting, you can use compost or vermicompost or FYM ( Fast time field preparation). After the plant is established, you can use fertilizer low nitrogen and High phosphorus, and potassion 5:15:15 or 8:24:24 gm/plant every month.

Use another method

Apply Farm Yard Manure(FYM) or Compost or Vermicompost at 20-25 ton/ha, apply NPK at 35:25:35 kg/ton. Before pumpkin planting, you can apply full Phosphate and Potash, use half nitrogen. 30-35 days later you can be used half nitrogen in your field.

Where to buy pumpkin plants

i) Indiamart (Anywhere in India)

Study: How to growing pumpkins problems

Study: Pumpkin cultivation information 

growing pumpkins problems | pest | disease | control method

Pumpkin is a very good healthy vegetable. Its Botanical name is  Cucurbita pepo L, and family is Cucurbitaceae. Today I am fully discuss growing pumpkins problems with control method.

Growing pumpkins problems | pest and disease control

Red pumpkin beetle

red pumpkin beetle

It is the most destructive pest of all cucurbitaceous crops. The damage to the plant is caused mainly by the adult insects which feed voraciously on the leaves, flowers, and fruits. The grubs of this pest remain in the soil and feed on roots and stem of the plant. Even fruits touching the ground are destroyed by the larvae which penetrate into the fruit.

Management

i) Soil treatment with BHC, DDT, Endrin, Dieldrin or Neem Kernel also controls larvae.

ii) Spray a mixture of lime and calcium arsenate or Parathion 0.025% or Phosphamidon 0.04%

Fruit flies(growing pumpkins problems)

They are very small which insects and the top of the plants.

Management

Spray 1.0 liter of Malathion 50EC in 200-250 liters of water/ha.

Powdery Mildew

The disease develops as a powdery mildew growth over the surface of the leaf, leaf sheath and floral bracts. The mycelium becomes dark with the age and later on a large number of round and dark cleistothecia develop on the leaves. The typical is the grey powdery surfaces lesions, scattered or completely covering the leaf blade with yellowing, browning and drying out of the leaf.

Management :

i) Spray Karathane three times at the rate of 0.2% at 15 days interval.

ii) Sulphur dusting at the rate of 15-20 kg/ha gives good control of the disease.

Stem blight

pumpkin stem blight

Stem blight is a fungal disease. The fungal damage the tissues of the stem at all stage of development.

Management

i) Stem blight treatment must be started before you even plant the seeds to be entirely effective.

ii)Soil treatment with a mixture of Brassicol Captain at the rate of 10kg /ha gives good of the disease.

iii) Use certified disease-free seeds seedling can be infected without showing symptoms.

Blackroot (growing pumpkins problems)

pumpkin black rot

The symptoms may be seen in the seedling stage. The roots rot and plants show black of the lowermost leaves and finally wilting. The chief location of the injury is the underground part of the plants.

Downy Mildew

The symptoms appear on the upper of the leaves as scattered yellow to brown patches of indeterminate shape. The infected tissues soon die and turn brown. The white to the grayish violet downy growth of the fungus is covering the under the surface of the infected leaf from the early stages. The pods are also infected and the seeds are smaller in size and aborted.

Management

i) Follow crop rotation and field sanitation by burning the crop debris after harvest.

ii) Crops may be sprayed with Dithane Z-78 or Dithane M-45 in case of heavy infestation.

Mosaic (growing pumpkins problems)

Pumpkin plants are attacked by different mosaic disease. The infected leaves show green and dark green mosaic. Faint yellowing in patches may be seen on the leaves. The plant is stunted and shows sickly appearance. The tuber size and number is reduced.  The leaves may show necrosis of tissues along the vein in some mosaic disease. The disease is spread in the field by insects which carry the virus from diseased plants to healthy plants.

Study: Pumpkin cultivation information

Study: vegetable cultivation

bitter gourd pest disease management | pest and disease

Bitter gourd is a very important vegetable, today I fully discuss bitter gourd pest disease management. If you fully study this article then completely pest and disease control.

Bitter gourd pest disease management  

At first duscuss Bitter gourd pest control metod.

Bitter gourd Aphid

aphid

The nymphs and adults suck sap iron from the leaves, tender shoots, and immature grains. As a result, the plants become yellow and the grains become light and of poor quality and the yield is materially reduced.

Management

Spray 375ml of dimethoate 30 EC or Oxydemeton methyl 25 EC or Monocrotophos 36 SL in 250 liters of water/ha.

Bitter gourd Red pumpkin beetle

The adult beetle is mainly responsible for the damage in the bitter gourd plants. The red pumpkin beetle attacking the leaves, flowers, and fruits. Larvae live in the soil and feed on the roots and stem of the plant. Fruits and leaves are also damaged when they come in contact with soil.

Management

i) Repellents, the pest gets repeated by ash or mixture of ash and insecticidal dust.

ii) Spray dusting with 5% Malathion @10kg/ha or Methyl Parathion 0.02%, or Lindane 0.1% @200-300 liters/acre.

iii) Collection and destruction of beetle in the early stage of infestation.

Bitter gourd disease management

Damping off

This is a minor disease. The seedlings are attacked at the ground level and the diseased portion is constricted resulting in falling of the seedling.

Management

i) Treat the seeds with Agrosan GN or Ceresan wet @ 2g/kg seed. Thiram or Captan @3g/kg of seed also gives good production.

ii) Drench the soil with Captain suspension @2.5g/liter of water in case of heavy infestation.

 

Bitter gourd Powdery mildew

 powdery milldew

The Characteristic white grayish powdery coating is discernible on the surface of severely affected leaves. The leaves turn yellow and finally drop.

Management

Spray wettable sulfur @2g/liter of water in case of heavy infection. Repeat spraying after 8-10 days if needed.

Bitter gourd  mites

The nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves and other tender parts. The infested leaves fall down and cause defoliation.

Management

Spray 625ml of oxydemetion methyl 25EC or dimethoate 30EC in case 250-300 liters of water/ha with the appearance of the pest. Alternatively, spray wettable sulfur 0.05%

Ridge gourd disease management | Plant diseases

Ridge gourd disease management– Ridge gourd is a very good vegetable for us. If you have regularly eaten this vegetable, your health is more batter.
One day I am full discuss ridge gourd cultivation information, if you don’t study this article so please study this article then fully understand the ridge gourd cultivation method.
If you ridge gourd cultivation properly then you have to earn enough money, because of ridge gourd vegetable some time attack pests and diseases. You regularly watch field then no more losses(pest and diseases) your field. Today I discuss ridge gourd disease management-

Ridge gourd disease management

Ridge gourd powdery mildew

ridge gourd powdery mildew
ridge gourd powdery mildew

Typical light grey to white powder spots appear on the upper surface and later on the under the surface of the leaf blades, sheaths, and bracts. Infected plants become stunted due to a reduction in size and number of leaves, and produce poor yield. Numerous small round, dark cleistothecia develop on the affected areas.

Management :

  1. Grow resistant varieties (TL 1210, NP710, Np718, K53, E750, and C591).
  2. Burn the crop refuse in the field after harvesting.
  3. Spray fungicide mixture of 16 parts Dithane M-45 and 4 parts Karathane 25WP @ kg/ha in 800-1000 liters of water. For this make a solution of 8 g Dithane M-45 and 2g Karathane 25 WP per 5 liters of water. About two to three sprays should be given at an interval of 10-15 days if the losses are expected to be very high.

ridge gourd downy mildew

ridge gourd downy mildew
ridge gourd downy mildew

Downy mildew is a serious disease in the ridge gourd vegetable. It is caused by the fungus-like water mold pesudoperonspure cubensis.

Downy mildew can affect as small yellow spots or water-soaked lesions on the topside of older leaves, the result is photosynthetic area causes stunting of plants, reduced yields, and sunscalding of the fruits following defoliation.

Management

i) Transplanting time ensure that the transplants are free from disease.

ii) Consider washing equipment and tools before moving the field to another.

iii) Spray plants with Mancozeb @ 2gm/liter of water.

Ridge gourd plant caterpillar

ridge gourd caterpillars
ridge gourd caterpillars

The caterpillar cut the seedlings at ground level. In case of heavy infestation, resowing may be necessary. Climbing cutworms damage to the young plants.

Management

i) Dust 2% Lindane on the soil around the plants @ 25kg/ha.

ii) A dusting of 5% Lindine @35kg/ha gives good control of the pest.

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