potato pest and disease control with management method

Potato pest disease management- Potato is a cool weather crop, when the temperature is up/down then many problems come. Today I discuss potato pest disease management. Potato has many important pest and disease attack, here are the part of part what do about them-

Potato pest disease management with control method

Animal Pests

Cutworm

The full-grown caterpillars are about 5cm long. The adult moths have dull brownish forewings with numerous wavy lines and fawn colored hind wings. The caterpillars cut the young plant at the ground level and in the later stages feed on potato tubers by making holes. They do more harm by cutting the plants then by actual feeding.

Management

i) Flooding the field reduces the activity of the caterpillars

ii) Give soil application with 2% lindane @ 25-30kg/ha before sowing.

iii) Drench the soil around the plant and the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20EC @litres/ha on the appearance of the pest in Januar-February.

Aphid

aphid potato pest
Aphid potato pest

The insets are small greenish in color, sometimes they are pate yellow or dark in color. They appear late in the season. Both nymphs and adults damage the plant by sucking the cell sap from the leaves, tender shoots, and stems. The leaves of infected plants become yellowish and lose luster. Besides this, they secrete honeydew on the leaves on which black mold appears. These insects transmit the viral diseases of potato.

Management

i)  Spray the crop with 750ml of dimethoate 30EC or oxydemeton methyl  25EC in 200-250 liter of water/ha as soon as the pest appears. Give another spray after 10 days.

i) In case of the crop meant for seed, apply 12.5kg of phorate 10G to the soil/ha at the time of first earthing up. No insecticidal spray will be required thereafter.

Jassid

jassid potato pest
jassid potato pest

These small insects feed on leaves and as a result of this feeding the leaves curl, turn plate bronze and dry from margins.

Management

i) Spray the crop with 750ml of dimethoate 30EC or oxydemeton methyl  25EC in 200-250 liter of water/ha as soon as the pest appears. Give another spray after 10 days.

ii) In case of the crop meant for seed, apply 12.5kg of phorate 10G to the soil/ha at the time of first earthing up. No insecticidal spray will be required thereafter.

Epilachna bettle (potato pest disease management)

The beetle is small insects of yellowish brown or dark brown color. The grubs or larvae of the beetles are very sluggish and move very slowly while feeding on leaves. They are yellowish in color with erect spines on their body. The grubs and adults both on the foliage. The grubs scrap away the chlorophyll from leaving only veins.

Management

i) Spray 2.0kg carbaryl 50wp or 1.5 liters of endosulfan 35EC or 625ml of malathion 50EC in 250-300 liters of water per hectare.

ii)A dusting of 10% carbaryl dust @ 30kg/ha also gives good control.

Potato tuber moth

The full-grown larva is pale in color with a faint green border on either side of the body and measures about 12mm in length. A moth is small, narrow-winged and grayish brown in color. This is mainly a serious pest of stored but it causes damages in the fields also. The caterpillars mine the leaves, petioles, young shoots and exposed tubers whereby patches are formed. Within the storage godowns, the caterpillars feed inside the pulp and make tunnels. The tunnels are filled up by excreta. Such tubers generally generally become unfit for marketing and consumption.

Management

i) Store only health potatoes in godown

ii) Potatoes should be stored in cold stores. In case they are to store in the ordinary store, a layer of sand of about 2.5 t o5cm think should be kept below and above the heap of potato.

iii) The pest can be checked by spraying 2.5kg of carbaryl 50WP in 650 liters of water/ha

iv) If potato tubers in the stores get infested, fumigation with carbon disulfide @2-3 litres/100 m3 should be done.

Nematodes (potato pest disease management)

Root knot nematode

They are prevalent in all parts of the country. The characteristic symptoms of the nematode infested plants are stunting of plants with small and poor foliage and their premature yellowing, shedding and have the tendency to wilt during hot period of the day, poor and shallow root system. The roots become swollen and give a beaded appearance. Invaded tubers show a pimple like protuberances on its surface.

Management

i) Keeping land fallow and 3 to 4 ploughings during summer improves the crop performance.

ii) Use of DD @200l iters per hectare given at 1.5-2.5cm deep and 30cm apart before 20-30 days of planting gives good control of nematode.

Potato pest disease management (disease management)

Late blight

potato pest disease management
potato late blight

The disease affects the foliage, stems, and tubers of the potato plant. The first symptom of the disease appears on the leaves as small black areas which may extend and kill the foliage in a few days. It is more serious in moist weather. Decaying leaves often emit an offensive odor. The underground tubers are also affected and may decay before harvesting. The affected tubers show light brown patches on the surface and rusty brown necrosis of underneath flesh. The disease rapidly multiplies under cool temperature (10-20C) and high humidity (above 80%R.H.).The entire crop may be destroyed within a weak in case of susceptible varieties.

Management

i) Use seed potato from disease free areas.

ii) Destroy the infected p ant, plant parts, potatoes and debris by burying the soil.

iii) Grow kufri joti, kufrikishan, kufri sindhuri, kufri kuber, and kufri Naval as resistant varieties.

iv) Spray the crop with Indofil M-45/kavach @1.25-1.75kg or copper oxychloride 50WP @2.0-2.5 kg/ha in 625-900 liters of water/ha in the first week of November before the appearance of the disease followed by 5 more sprays at 7 days interval.

Early blight

In dry weather with intermittent rain, the disease appears in an epidemic form both in the mid-hills. And plants. Affected leaves show brown spots scattered over the lamina surface. These sports later show concentric narrow dark lines which gives them a target board appearance. Older sports become dark brown. In severe cases, the affected leaves dry and petioles, stems and even the tubers are affected.

Management

i) Spray the crop with Indofil M-45 or copper oxychloride as mentioned for late blight.

ii) Crop debris should be destroyed after harvest.

Black scarf

The disease appears in two phases. In system canker phase the sports are killed before they emerge and this delays the germination resulting in loss of yield. The cankers may cause wilting of the plants also. In black scarf phase, the surface of the diseased tubers has rough black encrustations. This reduces the market value of potato. This disease not only spoils tubers but induces heavy wilting of the plants from such tubers.

Management

i) Use disease free tubers for sowing.

ii) Tubers should be disinfected with Agallol @5g or with Emisan or Tafasan @2.5g/liters of water for 10 minutes before sowing.

iii) Soil application of saw-dust at the rate of 25 quintals per hectare with 20kg of additional nitrogen at least 15 days before planting will reduce the disease incidence.

Powdery scab (potato pest disease management)

The disease first appears as small brown spots on young developing tubers. The sports later become raised as pimples and ultimately break open the skin releasing a black-brown powdery mass.

Management

Treat seed tubers with Agallol-3 @500g/100litres of water for 10minuts before planting in clod storage for reducing the infection.

Common scab

It is tuber and soil-borne fungus and is prevalent in light, organic manure deficient soils. The fungus mostly affects the tuber, which may show mere rosseting or deep spots up to 1-2cm in diameter. In contrast to powdery scab, there is an absence of powdery mass released from the ruptured skin.

Management

i) Use disease free seeds.

ii) Green manuring before planting will reduce infection

iii)Irrigate land at regular intervals for keeping the soil moist from the time of tuberization. This will check the disease incidence

iv) Treat the seed with Agallol @5g or Tufsan or Emisan @ 2.5g/liter of water for 10 minutes.

Leaf spot

Small circular to angular reddish brown sports of pin-head size appears first on lower and older leaves. Later they coalesce from bigger irregular dark brown spots with the grey center. Incidence is more on an early sown crop.

Management

Spray the crop as given under early blight.

Bacterial wilt and Brown rot (potato pest disease management)

potato Bacterial wilt
Bacterial Wilt

This is a dreadful disease of potato common in lower hills, plateau region, and West Bengal. The characteristic symptom of the disease is sudden wilting of the plant. Affected plants show droopy appearances and the branches gradually turn bronzy and die. The vascular bundles of the affected stems are brown and the tubers show a brown ring inside. Eyes of the tubers are also blackened. If the infected tuber or stem is cut transversely and pressed, while cream-colored droplets are seen oozing from the vascular region. When a piece of 4-6cm long stem is cut and the end is dipped into clear water in a glass, bacterial mass can be seen coming out as a whitish thread. The bacteria ooze out in the soil through injured roots and are carried by irrigation water too.

Management

i)  Plant certified seed free from brown rot disease.

ii) In case cut potato tubers are used, they should be kept at 120C for 4 days for hardening of the cut surfaces.

iii) The crop debris should be collected and burnt

iv) In isolated plots of plants showing wilting symptoms, The soil in the radius of 1 meter around the infected plant should be treated with 10% formalin or 0.5% copper Sulphate or 0.5% Streptocyclin solution up to a depth of 30cm just after harvest.

Soft rot (potato pest disease management)

The bacterium enters through wounds, bruises or other diseased sports. The chief symptom of the disease is the softening of the tissues the field and also during storage and transit. In severe cases, it may be accompanied by a watery ooze and a foul smell from the rotting tubers.

Management

i) Grade the tubers in order to separate healthy and diseased tubers.

ii) Cut and injured tubers should be discarded

iii)Avoid prolonged wetting of tubers

iv) Store and transport the tubers under well-ventilated conditions.

Mosaic

Potato plants are attacked by different mosaic disease. The infected leaves show green and dark green mosaic pattern on the lamina surface. Faint yellowing in patches may be seen on the leaves. The plant is stunted and shows sickly appearance. The tuber size and number is reduced.  The leaves may show necrosis of tissues along the vein in some mosaic disease. Diseased, small sized tubers are the primary source of inoculum.  The disease is spread in the field by insects which carry the virus from diseased plants to healthy plants.

Management

i) Use healthy certified seeds for sowing. Do not plant very small sized tubers since they are more likely to be from the diseased plant.

ii) Spray the crop with systemic insecticides like oxydemeton methyl 25EC or dimethoate 30EC at the rate of 600-750ml in 500 to 600 liters of water/ha at 10-15 days interval to check the insect vectors which transmit the disease.

iii) The granular insecticides, viz. phorate 10G @15-20kg/ha can be used along with the fertilizers at the time of planting.

Study: Best way potato cultivation

Leaf roll-potato pest disease management

Plants infected with leaf-roll virus show rolling of a leaflet. The leaflets roll upwards from the margins and progress towards the midribs until the entire lamina is involved. The leaves become leathery and brittle and produce a rattling sound when brushed with hand. The number of tubers per plant and their size is greatly reduced. The disease may lead to necrosis of conducting tissues with the result that the food material assimilated in the leaves cannot be translocated to the tubers.

Management

i) Use healthy certified seeds for sowing. Do not plant very small sized tubers since they are more likely to be from the diseased plant.

ii) Spray the crop with systemic insecticides like oxydemeton methyl 25EC or dimethoate 30EC at the rate of 600-750ml in 500 to 600 liters of water/ha at 10-15 days interval to check the insect vectors which transmit the disease.

iii) The granular insecticides, viz. phorate 10G @15-20kg/ha can be used along with the fertilizers at the time of planting.

If you have any question ‘potato pest disease management’ this topic, feel free to ask me in the comments section below-

 

 

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