Rice cultivation methods– Paddy/rice is a food of more than 60 percent of the world production, about 90 percent of the paddy in the world is produced and consumed in Asia. Rice cultivation/Pady cultivation more than 44.6 million hectors. Paddy botanical name is Oryza sativa, the family is Graminae.
Rice cultivation methods in India
LLand, and Isolation Distance (ID)
Land to be used paddy seed production shall be free of volunteer plants and the soil preferable clay loam. Paddy is strictly a self-pollinated crop. The extent of natural cross-pollination varies from 0 to 0.68 percent. For pure seed production, the seed fields must be isolated at least by 3 meters from other fields of paddy, for F and C seed production.
2. 2. Sowing seasons and seed rat(rice cultivation methods)
- · Nursery sowing; 25th May – 16th June.
- · Sowing of late maturing varieties in the nursery should be done from 25th May to 10th June and that of early duration varieties from 10th to 25th June.
· Adopt a seed rate of 60 kg for short duration 40 kg medium duration and 30 kg for long duration varieties per hours.
3.A. Seed standards(paddy cultivation methods)
(a) Minimum Pure seeds– percentage for F and C seed production is 90.0% and maximum inert matter 2.0%
(b) Maximum other crop seeds– maximum 10 and 20 number of seeds per kg of F and C seeds respectively.
( c) Objectionable weed seed– Maximum 10 and 20 seeds per kg of F and C seeds respectively.
(d) Germination Percentage– Minimum 85%for both F and C.
(e) Moisture content Maximum 12% both for F and C. Maximum moisture content (M.C.) 8% for vapor proof pack.
3.B) Field Inspection– Minimum 2 number of inspections to be made from flowering to harvest. At the time of final inspection, maximum 0.05% and 0.20% (ear heads) are permitted for F and C seed production respectively.
4 seeds treatment(rice cultivation methods)
The slurry seed treatments with carbendazim and tricyclazole (2g/kg) increase the seed germination, seedling height, dry matter production, and vigor index compared to other fungicides.
5. Nursery management-
Prepare raised beds measuring 6*1.5 m wide channels all around to facility drainage (About 50-60 beds of size 6.0*1.5 m are sufficient for raising seedling to transplant 1 hectare). Apply 450g superphosphate per bed at the time of final preparation of the beds and mix them thoroughly with the soil. The required seed rate is 400-600 g/bed. Application of DAP at 40 kg/cent nursery area results in increased seedling height, a number of leaves per seedling, shoot dry weight, root length, and uptake of NPK.
6.Transplanting(rice cultivation methods)
Transplant 2-3 seedling per hill at 2-3 cm deep. The seedling should be appropriate age at the time of Transplanting
Usually, a row spacing of 30 cm with a seeding depth of 5 cm is adopted which depends on the duration of varieties.
Short duration -12.5*30 cm, Medium duration 20*30 cm, Long duration 20*15 cm.
Roguing should be done at followed three stage Viz, Vegetative, flowering and maturity to remove off types.
- · Vegetative stage- plants showing abnormal height and dwarf, early flowering plants
- · Flowering stage- Late flowering plants and plants producing ill-filled grains, wild rice plants, plants infected with stem borers, diseased and plants with (tungro virus and false smut).
- · Maturing stage- Which are not confirmed for the seed crop grain character i.e. slender, bold grain characters etc.
9. Manures and fertilizer(rice cultivation methods)
- · Apply 12.5 tonnes of FYM or compost/ha.
- · 6.25 tonnes of Sesbania rostrata green manure is incorporated to have better fertility status in the field.
- · For all the rice duration varieties, NPK at the rate of 100:50:50 Kg per hectare.
- · One-fourth of N and all of the K fertilizers are applied just before the final puddling.
- · The remaining quantity of N is applied in two stages. One half at the time of mid tillering and another half at the panicle initiation stage, a foliar spray of 2 percent urea solution at the active tillering stage helps to boost paddy seed yield.
- · Application of DAP 2% as a foliar spray to the seed crop at 6.5th and 80th days after sowing has increased the seed yield. Spraying of Succinic acid (0.1%) thrice during crop growth stages namely, panicle initiation, boot leaf, and 50 percent flowering, result in increased seed yield and seed quality parameters.
10. Irrigation –
- · Irrigate the field 18-24 hours after sowing
- · Allow enough water to saturate the soil from the 3thto 4th day onwards.
- · Maintain 2.5 cm depth of water
- · Continuous submergence to 5 cm in the field records the maximum numbers of productive tillers/m2 and number of filled seeds/ panicles.
what is a pesticide or how to use pesticide
11. Harvesting and threshing-
After harvest rice seed must be dried to 11-13% moisture content for safer storage. Seed crop must be harvested 28, 31 and 35 days after flowering for the short medium and long duration varieties respectively. At harvest maturity stage, 90 percent of the population attains straw color and seed moisture content reduced to 17 to 20 percent.
1 12. Yield(paddy cultivation methods)
2.5 to 3 tones/h.
13. Grading and upgrading(rice cultivation methods)
A sieves size of 1.3 mm*19mm, oblong perforation for fine seed varieties and sieve having 1.5 mm x 19 mm oblong perforation for medium and loss coarse seed varieties and 1.8 mm x 19 mm for coarse seeded varieties should be used. Upgrading the seeds on weight basis before sowing by density grading using common salt solution having a specific gravity 1.13 and collect only the heavy seeds that sink at the bottom and rinse with water.
14. Treatment for Breaking Dormancy-
Socking in Thiorea for 20-24 hours can break dormancy and produce germination immediately.