Sesame cultivation practices– Sesame is an oldest oilseeds crops. Sesame seeds oil content is 40-48 percent. Sesame oil seeds botanical name is Sesamum indicum, and its family is Pedaliaceae. Sesame seeds cultivated many color varieties Example is Red, Black, Yellow, and White( max cultivated Red seeds). Sesame seeds cultivation practices during the Kharif season in India.
The best season for raising sesame seed crop is April to May.
Sesame cultivation practices in India
2. Application of fertilizers:
Spread FYM or composted coir pith or compost @ 12.5 t/ha evenly on the ploughed land and plough it in. Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil tests are not available, follow the blanket recommendations of 50:25:25 kg/ka with manganese sulfate @ 5kg/ha. Apply full dose of N, P and K basally. Open furrows to a depth of 5 cm and 30 cm apart of 3 cm with soil before sowing. If furrow application is not done, broadcast the fertilizer mixture evenly on the before sowing.
3. Foliar application :
DAP 1 percent spray at that time of first flowering and again 10 days after the first spray ensure well-filled quality seeds. Nachimuthu (14) observed the increased number of a capsule, 100 seed weight, seed and oil yield over untreated control by the application of Arappu+ MnSo4 pelleting treatment with MnSo4 foliar spray.
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4 g/kg. This can be done just before sowing. It is compatible with biofertilizers and such seeds should not be treated with fungicides. Treat the seeds with Thiram or Carbendazim at 2 g/kg of seed before sowing.
8. Sowing :
The sesame seed cultivation sowing is preferably in line. Mix the seeds with 4 times its volume of dry sand and drop the mixture evenly along the furrows in which fertilizers are applied. Thin out the seedlings to a spacing of 15cm between plants on the 15th day and 30 cm on the 30th day of sowing. Sow the seeds to a depth of 3 cm and cover with soil. In heavy soils, seedlings at the four-leaf stage are transplanted to ensure adequate population. Transplanting 14 to 18 days old seedling is highly beneficial and it induces branches and reduces the seed rate to 50 percent. While transplanting care is needed not to bend the seedling as it seedling as it will break with high mortality.
Harvest when 75 to 80 percent pods start yellowing and bottom 1 or 2 pods have dehisced. At this stage, the pod moisture content will 50 to 60 percent and seeds moisture content will be 25-30 percent and the seed will attain chocolate brown in color. Stack the stalks vertically and allow them to air dry protecting from moisture, shake the stalks to separate the seeds. Report drying until all the mature pods have dehisced to shed the seeds.
11. Mid storage correction :
When the stored seeds of gingelly showing declining trend in germination should be removed from storage and pre-cleaned. The seeds are then soaked for 2 hours in double the volume of disodium phosphate solution ( 3.60 g/100 lit of water ). If salty is not available, potable water can beused. The floaters should be removed. The seeds the bottom should be spread over a clean gunny bag and air dried, dressed with carbendazim @ 2 G/kg of seeds and stored.
For short-term storage i.e. for a period of 4 to 5 months the seeds may be packed in fresh gada cloth bag or gunny bag. For long storage, the moisture content should be reduced to 5 to 6 percent and then dry dressed with bavistin and packed in paper aluminum foil polyethylene laminated bag and completely lead sealed to make the bag airtight.
That is sesame seeds cultivation process. If you any problem then comment this box then our team solve that.