Sunflower is a most important oilseed throwout the World. It is a beautiful flower and a great health. Usually, sunflower seeds contain about 46-52 percent edible oil. Today I fully discuss sunflower cultivation India.
1.Land requirement (sunflower cultivation India)
I)Selection of field should be done where sunflower was not grown in the previous year unless they were of the same variety and were of equivalent or higher class and were certified.selected plots should be well drained and the soil deep, fertile and neutral PH.
a)Pure seed:Minimum 98% both FS and CS.
b)Inert Matter: Maximum inert matter 2% both for FS and CS.
c)Other Crop Seeds: None
d)Germination Percentage: Minimum 70.0 % both for FS and CS.
e)Moisture Content: Maximum 9.0% or 7.0% for Ordinary and vapor proof pack both for FS and CS.
sunflower cultivation India
Sunflower cultivation Seed rate :
Seed rate is 15kg/ha. Selected good quality seeds. Use seeds retained by 12/64 (4.7 mm diameter) round performed sieve or BSS 5 *5 wire mesh sieve for Ec 1011495. For other varieties use 9/64” ( 3.5 mm diameter) round performed sieve and window to eliminate chaffy, light and broken seeds.
Season and varieties :
For raising seed crop, February to March was to be the best season registering higher seed yield and seed quality attributes.
Application of fertilizers and micronutrients to sunflower cultivation India
Application of 12.5 t/ha of FYM or Compost evenly on the field before the last ploughingand incorporation in the soil by working a country plough is recommended. Apply NPK fertilizer basally as per soil test recommendations. If soil test recommendations are not available, follow the blanket recommendation of 60:45:45 kg NPK/ha. Azospirillum soil application i.e. mixes 10 pockets (2000g/ha) of inoculants with 25kg FYM and 25 kg soil and apply before sowing.
Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrients mixture with enough sand to make a total quantity of 50 kg/ha. Apply the mixture over the furrows and top two-thirds of the ridges before sowing. Do not incorporate the mixture into the soil. To overcome manganese deficiency, foliar spray of 0.5% MnSo4on 30, 40 and 50 days of sowing and for zinc deficiency, apply 25 kg/ha Znso4 as basal or 0.5% Znso4 spray on 30, 40 and 50th day of sowing is recommended.
Seed Treatment :
In fresh sunflower cultivation India (1to5-month-old) germination will be low due to dormancy. Hence they should be soaked in an aqueous solution of Potassium nitrated at 0.5 percent concentration for 16 hours in open plastic container, then wash and air-dry the seeds. Soaking seeds in 2 percent ZnSo4 solution for 12 hrs and shade drying recommendation for rainfed sowing.
Treating the seeds with Trichoderma @ 4g/kg old seed is recommended or This can be done just before sowing. The seeds can be treated with carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g /kg of seeds. Treat the seeds 24 hours prior to sowing. About 3 packets ( 600g/ha of Azospirillum inoculant for treating seeds using rice kanji as a binder. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes and sow immediately.
A spacing of 45 x 30 cm is given and the seeds at the depth of 3 cm were placed along the furrows in which the fertilizer mixture was placed and then cover with soil. Place two seeds per hole. In modern cultivar spacing of 30 x 30 cm was the optimum for the seed crop in getting maximum seed yield seed quality. Gap fill and pull out seedlings leaving only one healthy and vigorous seedling in each hole on 10 the day of sowing.
Field Inspection stages :
Sunflower farming Minimum 3 field inspection should be done from flowery to harvest stage.
Field Standards :
Land and Isolation Distance.
The I.D. should be 400 and 200 m for F & C seeds respectively.
Seed Standards :
a)Pure seed: Minimum 98% pure seed and none other crop seed.
b)Germination Percentage: Minimum 70.0 % both for FS and CS.
c)Moisture Content: Maximum M.C. should be 9% or 7% for ordinary and vapor proof pack respectively.
Foliar application of Hormone
Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 20 ppm concentration (280 g NAA in 625 liters water ). Spray is given. Spray 0.25 percent micronutrients at 4 melanin growth stage are recommended for increased seed setting. The Higher number of seeds due to the application of GA and increased seed yield, oil yield and seed quality attributes in modern sunflower is observed. The crop was supplemented with the nutrition of GA @ 100 ppm on 45th days after sowing.
sunflower cultivation is rogued based on plant height, head size and color of seeds during pre-flowering stage up to harvest.
Harvesting and Grading for Sunflower farming
When the drooping pendular receptacle turns lemon or pale yellow in color the crop is harvested and at this stage, the seed moisture content will be about 25 percent and the seeds will be black in color. The heads were cut and dried immediately until the seeds contain 15 to 16 percent moisture and then separate the seeds with a mechanical thresher or manual labor and pre-cleaning was done.
A sieve with 9/64” (3.6 mm) diameter, round perforated or BSS 7 x7-wire mesh sieve is used. Removed broken seeds. The seed grading is very important for getting the higher yield with good quality was reported by many scientists.
For short period of storage., up to 6 months, dry the seeds to 7 – 8 percent moisture content and store in a cloth bag. For long period of storage beyond 10 months, dry the seeds to 5-6 percent moisture content and store them in high-density polythene ( 700 gauge thick ) bag. Heat seal the bag.
Hydration-dehydration (H-DH) treatment for 5 months old seeds using Disodium phosphate (10-4M) for 6 hours, prolonged the storage life up to one year. Mid storage hydration dehydration treatment given to 5-6-month-old achenes recorded minimum deterioration of achenes even ambient storage for 7 months when they were stored in 700 gauge polythene bag.