The tomato is botanically known is Solanum lycopersicum, belong to the family Solanaceae. Tomato is an important commercial vegetable crop for farmers. Tomato cultivation methods is facing varieties problems due to the outbreak of pest and diseases related to climate change labor shortage and borewells going dry etc. In the few years, late blight has emerged as a devastating disease for tomato cultivation guide for farmers in Kharif and late Kharif season. The fruits are harvested as red for consumption. It has a prominent place in human food. A brief account of its cultivation is given below.
Tomato cultivation methods in India
Tomato varieties for tomato cultivation :
Arka, Sourabh, Arka, Vikas, Arka, Ahuti, Narondra Tomato 2, Pusa rod plum, Pusa early Dwarf, Punjab Chhuhara, Pusa Rudy, plant Bahar, Plant T3, Solan Gola and Arka Meghali.
F1 hybrids – Arka, Abhijit, Rupali, Arka vishal, Arka vardon, pusa hybride 1, pusa hubride 2, sonali, Rashmi, Gulmohor.
Climate Requirement for tomato cultivation methods :
The tomato is aware season crop. The crop does well under an average monthly temperature of 210 to 23 0 C. Temperature, and light intensity affects the fruit set, pigmentation and nutritive value of the fruit. Long dry spell and heavy rainfall both show a detrimental effect on growth and fruiting.
Nutritional values and health Benefit of Tomato:
I) Tomatoes are a good source of potassium.
II) Tomato is good for eye health.
III) Tomatoes are good for digestion.
IV) Tomatoes are powerful blood purifiers and clear up urinary tract infections.
V) Tomatoes are a good source of vitamin ‘C and A’. They have excellent anti-oxidant
VI) Tomatoes help in fighting cancers.
VII) Tomatoes help in maintaining blood health.
VIII) Tomatoes help in reducing the risk of heart disease.
Soil requirement for tomato cultivation methods:
Tomato is a moderately tolerant crop to a wide ph range. A ph of 5.5-6.8 is preferred. Tomatoes plants will in more acidic soil with adequate nutrient supply and availability. Tomato is moderator tolerant to acid soil that is ph 5.5. The soils with proper water holding capacity, aeration, depth 15 to 20cm forms salts are selected for tomato cultivation methods.
Choice of seeds for tomato cultivation:-
After seed production, diseased, broken seeds are discarded. The seeds for sowing should be free from inert matter. Early germination, bold, uniform in shape and size, seeds are selected for sowing. Hybrid seeds from F1 generation are advantageous for environmental conditions.
Seed rate for tomato cultivation :
I) For raising the seedlings in nursery bed 300-400 gm/ha seeds are required.
II) Hybrid seeds are very costly soil should be sown in plastic cups or cube or ice cube tray. Which required only 70-90mg.
Time of planting for tomato cultivation :
I) Tomato is a day plant so wildly it found grown in any season.
II) In the northern plains their crops are taken but in fast affected area rabi crop is not fruitful. The Kharif crop is transplanted in July, rabi crop in October- November and Zaid crop in February months.
III) In the southern plants where there is no danger of frost, The fruit transplanting is done is December-October depending on the irrigation facilities available.
Seeds Treatment for tomato cultivation :
I) To avoid damage to disease treats the seed with Tricoderma @ 5-10gm/kg seeds or Cabendazine 2gm/kg seeds.
II) The treatment seeds are dried in shade for 30 minutes and there sown along the lines in ½ cm depth and then covered by the topsoil.
Land preparation for tomato cultivation methods:
The land is prepared to a fine by thorough ploughing or digging 2.3 times. At the last ploughing organic manure and 10kg carbofuran granules or 200kg neem cake has to be applied.
Manure for tomato cultivation :
Apply well rotten from yard manure/compost @20-25 t/ha at time of land preparation and mixed well the soil. A fertilizer has done of 75:40:25 kg NPK/ha may be given. The dose of nitrogen full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal benefit transplanting. One-fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantity may be applied two months after planting.
Transplanting for tomato cultivation methods:
I) The transplanting is done is small flatbeds or in shallow furrow depending upon the availability of irrigation.
II) In heavy soil, it is usually transplanting on ridges and during the reins also it is advantage use to plant the seedling on ridges.
III) For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedling has to be started using bamboo sticks two-meter length or broad ridge of 90cm width and 15cm height. The seedling is planted in the furrows at a spacing of 30cm and the plant is allowed to spread on the broad ridge.
The Spacing of tomato cultivation :
The spacing recommended for the autumn-winter crop is 75x60cm and for the spring-summer crop 75x45cm.
Irrigation for tomato cultivation :
Tomato need very careful irrigation that is just sufficient water at the right time. It is necessary to maintain an even moisture supply. During the summer season, irrigation at every 5-7 day’s interval is necessary, whereas in water 10 to 15 days interval is sufficient. A period of trough followed by sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause cracked of fruits.
This post is Tomato cultivation guided by farmer
Weed control for tomato cultivation :
Light noeing should be carried out during the initial month in the field to encourage the plant growth. make sure to loosen the surface soil by hand hoeing as soon as dry enough after every irrigation or should and remove any weeds during this process. Mulching material like black polythene, straw, or any other materials can be used to conserve the soil moisture and control the weed growth.
Pest control for tomato cultivation methods :
· Spraying 5% of neem seed kernel extract con kill early stage larvae.
· Placing 15 to 20 bridge perching (T-shaped/ha) helps in inviting insectivorous birds.
· Spray NPV @625 LE/ha during evening hours.
· Application of chopped leaves/eaves of pong amir or crotalaria reduces disease severity caused by a nematode.
· Farmer of the Andhra Pradesh uses garlic + chilly extract and slurry of cow dung + urine of protection against pest and disease.
Disease Management for tomato cultivation methods :
· Field sanitation.
· Crop rotation with non-solanaceous.
· Providing better drainage, forming raised beds. ‘
· Uproot the heaving infected or virus-infected plants.
· Sanitation and crop rotation reduce the disease incidence.
· Seed treatment with Tricoderma 5-10gm or carbendazim 2gm or thirum 3g/kg seed.
Harvesting for tomato cultivation :
Maturing of tomato plants is achieved after 8 to 12 weeks of planting or seed attain maturity 30 t o35 days after the flowering period or fully mature red, and healthy tomato alone should be harvested. First 6 to 7 picking should be used for seed extraction. While picking, The core should be taken to avoid any damage to the plant. Once the fruits are harvested, they should be graded based on the size and quality store them appropriately and send them to the local market.
Yield for tomato cultivation methods :
An average yield of 25-30 tonnes of tomato per hectare can be achieved in open field farming 60 to 100 tonnes of tomato and in Hydro point farming, 150-250 tonnes can be expected.